Women and the glass ceiling concept

In 1990, the concept of glass ceiling pervaded the literature to describe the paucity of women, heading public and private sector organizations (Maume, 2004). Earlier, Morrison et al. (1987) gave new insight to the issues women face in their journey through the executive positions of the corporate organizations. Subsequently, the term “glass-ceiling-effect” became synonymous worldwide with the struggles women face in attempting to move up to the senior, executive and top management positions in corporate organizations (Wirth, 2001). Moreover, in Mauritius Dr. Ramgutty-Wong (1998) conducted a study on the glass ceiling with the title “CEO attitudes towards managers in corporate Mauritius”. Her research work covered the degree of involvement of women in decision making in organizations and whether top managers were aware of the problems that the female employees encountered. Thus, women face the glass ceiling when despite seeing the top jobs; they still cannot reach them due to the discriminatory barriers (Maume, 2004).

2. WOMEN AND THE GLASS CEILING: AN ILLUSION OR A REALITY?

While initially glass ceiling studies were particularly concerned with the failure of women in reaching the senior and executive positions hence, it was essential to focus on examining the reasons for inequality within management positions and career trajectories (Maume, 2004; Morrison et al., 1987). However, Cotter et al. (2001) profound description of the term glass ceiling as a specific form of generic inequality existing at the top level of the hierarchy contradicts others (Reskin and Padavic, 2001; Maume, 2004) claiming that the glass ceiling exist in lower levels and working class jobs. They further explain that immobility can occur in all occupations, but, if female employees limit themselves to certain jobs, then it is more to do with specific inequality and not with the glass ceiling, as it only exists when there is discrimination in career advancement. Hence, Cotter et al. (2001) three criteria for the glass ceiling occurrence suggest that it occurs when despite having similar abilities and potential as men, women face barriers in their career advancements, it also occurs when due to limited promotional prospects; women are discouraged from the initial position on the job ladder, thus raising men’s numbers to survive till the top levels and lastly, while organizations may be willing to pay out high salaries to women, they still hesitate to place them in positions where they can make an impact on organizations profitability, therefore, glass ceiling is created.

3. THEORIES AND MODELS

Theories and models accounting for the emergence of gender-related behaviors in organizations, and thus the creation of a glass ceiling, fall into three categories:

(1) Biological explanations;

(2) Socialization explanations; and

(3) Structural/cultural explanations (Lueptow et al, 2001).

Biological models argue that there are biological differences between men and women. These differences are thought to be a result of an “evolutionary model postulating constant gendered differences based on genetic patterns evolved from adaptation to differing reproductive challenges of early males and females” Today, biological models and evolutionary models usually are not applied in the context of leadership differences between men and women leaders (Lueptow et al, 2001). Thus, biological model state that the differences between men and women is genetic.

Instead, socialization and structural/cultural explanations have received much more attention than biological models (Bartol et al., 2003) and have been called “the most accepted explanation for gender differences” (Lueptow et al., 2001). Both models are social constructionist that accounts for the differences between genders. Social constructionist theories have argued that biological differences definition varies across cultures. Instead, it is the society’s expectations that produce and maintain inequality between genders (Wood and Eagly, 2002). More specifically, authors of socialization theories argued, “gender identity and differences are acquired through various developmental processes associated with life stages, such as schooling and work life” (Bartol et al, 2003), and therefore are based on individuals’ socialization. Thus, the social constructionist model argues that gender differences arise merely due to the perception of society. Women and men acquire differences through their developmental process. For example, level of education and interest in career development and among others. Therefore, these were the theories that depict a picture of the emergence of gender issues in organizations and the creation of the glass ceiling.

4. TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLE

4.1. Definition of Gender.

Gender is a process through which social life is organized at the level of the individual, family and society (Connell, 1993). Thus, gender is crucial in the structure of organizations. Based on individual human experience, gender defines the parameters of how women’s lives are different from men’s (Rohrbaugh, 1981; Nicolson, 1992a), and through the recognition that individuals are in possession of a gendered self or subjectivity through which they themselves interpret their own experiences and operate constraints (Hollway, 1989).

4.2. Stereotyping.

Gender stereotyping is one among the most prominent reasons why women tend to pursue different occupations and why horizontal and vertical segregation of labor markets prevails (UNED-UK’s report, 1998). Gender stereotypes of occupations are manifested in the belief that certain occupations are “women’s” occupations and others are “men’s” (Gatton, 1999). For example, when a decision is made to offer an important assignment to a man rather than to a woman, based on the assumption that women are not free to take on time – consuming tasks because of family commitment. Ultimately, women may be excluded from senior management positions because of perceptions that they will somehow change the management process by virtue of their gender.

5. WOMEN AND EDUCATION.

Marks el al (1997) stated that the educational environments may not be conducive to women’s development. In fact, enrolment statistics for 2009 from the Ministry of Education revealed that at secondary level enrolment dropped to 84 percent for girls compared to 75 percent for boys. Moreover, it is also proven that girls performed better than boys in the examinations namely Certificate of Primary Education, School Certificate and Higher School Certificate. The table below illustrates the differences in boys’ and girls’ performance which is higher at lower level of education and narrowed down as the level increases (Central Statistical Office (Mauritius, 2010).

Pass rates (%) at CPE, SC and HSC, Republic of Mauritius, 2009

 

Male

Female

Difference

CPE

62.3

74.5

12.2

SC

71.9

82.6

10.7

HSC

74.3

82.1

7.8

Source: (Central Statistical Office (Mauritius, 2010).

However, the number of female students enrolled in tertiary or higher education continues to rise. The entrants of female in undergraduate course in Mauritius 2009 in public institutions are 10912. It increased from 50.76 percent in 2005 to 54.89 percent in 2009. In addition, considering the number of entry of female in tertiary education in Public, Private and Overseas institutions there were a rise of 52.35 percent in 2005 to 54.84 percent in 2009 (Tertiary Education Commission, 2010). Despite this, differences in the nature and quality of tertiary education and training for females and males continue to pose barriers for many female when competing with men for promotion to professional and managerial positions. Eventually, females are unable to break through the glass ceiling.

6. CAREER CHOICE AND DEVELOPMENT.

6.1. Career.

A career is more than just the job or sequence of jobs a person holds over a lifetime. A career is the individually perceived sequence of attitudes and behaviors associated with work-related experiences and activities over a person’s life (Felman, 1988; Hall, 1976).

6.2. Women and Career.

From 1900 to 1980, the percentage of women in the work force increased from less than 20 percent to over 50 percent (Hall, 1976; Ross, 1983). It is estimated that by the year 2000, 65 percent of the entrants in the work force will be women (Powell, 1983). However, in 2009, Mauritius had a lesser proportion of women than men who were in employment or economically active. The economic activity rate was 43 percent for women against 76 percent for men. Working women were 182,500 in number and accounted for 35 percent of the total Mauritian workforce. They were mostly engaged (53%) in the teaching, nursing and health-related, manufacturing and trade sectors. They were also working in traditional ‘female occupations’ with 61% of them in clerical positions, sale and service and in ‘elementary’ occupations. On the other hand, a significant proportion have entered executive and professional specialty occupations with 19% in the occupation group ‘legislation, professionals and semi-professionals’ (Central Statistical Office, 2010).

Employment by occupational group and sex, 2009

Source: (Central Statistical Office (Mauritius, 2010).

Therefore, the statistics show that women are still working in lower positioned jobs and that only a few have succeeded to climb up the job ladder.

7. HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES.

7.1. Women and Recruitment.

Until the mid-1980, boys were usually recruited with A-level, girls with O-level. Men were offered greater prospects compared to women who had to do routine office work (Benett and Carter, 1983; Crompton, 1989; Savage, 1992a). This creates occupational segregation and creates stereotypical view on men and women’s role and abilities. However, over the last two decades employment for men has fallen as a result of an increase in women employment. For examples, between 1984 and 1999 the proportion of men who were economically active declined from 88 to 84 percent while the proportion of women rose from 66 to 72 percent in USA (Equal Opportunities Commission, 2001). However, in Mauritius women are over represented among the unemployed. The number of the unemployed women was 25,700 in 2009 compared to 15,800 men. Female, unemployment rate at 12.3% was almost thrice the rate for men (Central Statistical Office, 2010). Hence, due to certain barriers female employees still struggle to crack through the glass ceiling in Mauritius.

7.2. Legislation and Female Employees Recruitment.

In certain job advertisement the employers tend to attract only male applicants by using sexist job titles such as “salesman”. However, the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 in USA makes it unlawful to discriminate in an advertisement by favoring either sex. Yet, there maybe exceptions where the job can be performed only by men. Moreover, there are unisex job titles such as directors, managers and officers that are non-discriminatory. Therefore, this enables female also to apply for these high profile jobs and thus, encouraging them to break through the glass ceiling (Armstrong, 2009).

8. BARRIERS TO WOMEN’S CAREER DEVELOPMENT / PROGRESSION.

Barriers which hinder career development of women are complex and varied. Although many women hold management positions, few have made the breakthrough to top – level positions.

8.1 Promotion and Pay.

If women can perform as well as men then, pay and promotion should be identical. Yet, they tend to differ (Tosi et al, 1993). This results as a solid barrier for women not being able to crack through the glass ceiling. Pay and promotion is an essential tool to motivate employees to climb up the job ladder. Unfortunately, as female employees are exposed to barriers that prevent them from getting a pay rise or promotion, they are bound to stay below the glass ceiling. Some authors pointed out certain factors that explain the low progression rate of female employees in terms of promotion and pay.

Salary level is undoubtedly often equated with seniority and power, and if women want to establish themselves in the higher level of the hierarchy, they will have to start by no longer accepting inferior salary scales to men. Unluckily, employers sometimes play on these female attitudes towards pay (Cooper et al, 1992). Similarly, Gerhart (1987) suggests that one of the important factors contributing to the differences in the pay of female and male employees is the starting salaries paid to both for similar jobs.

Second, women are overrepresented in low – paying industries. Ward and Mueller (1985) studied the effects of industrial sector and organizational level on wages of men and women. Women are found in disproportionate numbers in service industries in which there are low profit margins, undeveloped internal labor markets, low job skill needs, and lower wage rates.

Third, in some organizations women may be doing less complex jobs at lower organizational level and thus, they get a low pay. In a study of work assignments in manufacturing plants, Form and McMillen (1983) found that women were more frequently assigned to simple repetitive tasks in which they used hand tools, whereas men were assigned to work on machines that required higher skill and on which they had more autonomy.

Fourth, a portion of the discrepancy can be attributed to different rates of pay and promotion at lower and higher organizational levels. Women do well at lower levels in organization, where their promotion rates and salary progression equals or exceeds that of men (Gerhart et al, 1987). These salary progression rates change at higher levels. Thus, preventing women progress and climb the job ladder.

The research cited above has been done during a period of significant change in the roles and number of women in the work force. Indeed, there has been progress, and luckily, it is likely to continue as the women who have entered the managerial and professional labor force at lower organizational levels have advanced in their careers.

8.2. Training and Development.

Training and development is a fundamental tool that enables employees to acquire certain skills that enable them to contribute in the achievement of the organization’s objectives. However, female employees often show their dissatisfaction towards limited training courses offered to them (Cooper, 1992). In fact, some authors have argued upon the provision of gender mixed or all female management training courses.

Harlan and Weiss (1980) argued that all female management training courses only highlight perceived differences between men and women managers, and prove detrimental in the long run. They suggest the following reasons for this:

Women maybe needing more training compared to men as perhaps, they lack certain abilities.

This may cause tension between men and women as women maybe receiving ‘favored treatment’.

On the other hand, other authors (Davidson et al, 1985) argue strongly that research evidence has proved that all-women management groups are less threatening and enable women not to be dominated by the dominant group namely the male employees in terms of speech, role allocation, loyalty affiliation of managerial skills, confidence building and assertiveness training. Langrish (1981) suggests that the arguments against women-only management training programmes are primarily of three kinds:

‘Real world’ arguments, that is, to be able to work alongside men as successful managers, women should be able to undergo training with men. This will enable them to face the real world.

The ‘special needs’ view suggest that women have special needs hence, should label them ‘different’ that is, inferior to men.

The ‘coping’ argument state that women have to learn how to work with men as their superiors, colleagues or subordinates, the best way can do this is to experience working with them on management courses.

These arguments are relatively weak for the following reasons:

Women are often assigned roles by the management trainers that restrict their learning potential and experience. They are given roles such as mother, seductress, pet or iron maiden-roles (Cooper et al, 1992).

In a gender-mixed training course, women are less likely to be able to develop valuable ways of learning new skills due to the presence of overwhelming numbers of men. In a recent review of women’s training needs, Colwill and Vinnicombe (1991) reaffirmed that in all-female groups, women are more able to admit faults, identify needs and areas where they feel inadequate, and engage in interactions which develop their strengths.

Eventually, Herbert and Yost (1979) believe that training women in managerial skills is of little value, if they are not allowed to demonstrate their skills on the job or not rewarded. Thus, all the arguments show the reason for which female employees cannot shatter the glass ceiling.

8.3. Lack of Female Role Models.

As people seek role models as part of their career development, they often search for individuals with similar backgrounds to themselves. However, this is difficult for many women. Consequently, young women are often said to be disadvantaged by the lack of female role models at the top of organizations (Vinnicombe et al, 2000). Thus, female employees tend to restrict themselves below the glass ceiling as there is a lack of female role model above the glass ceiling. Indeed, a Catalyst (2000) survey of current MBA students in the USA reported that 87 per cent of women and 77 per cent of men said that it was important or very important to feature more women business leaders as role models. However, in an earlier Canadian public sector study of 1,579 senior managers, Javidan et al. (1995) found that female subordinates had no problems in accepting superiors of either sex as role models. In contrast, they found that female superiors were not seen as role models by male subordinates. The critical factor for acceptance of a role model by both sexes was whether the subordinate perceived the superior to be successful or not, but the sex difference indicates persistence of seeing a male to be the manager (Schein and Mueller, 1992).

8.4. Work-Life Balance.

Work-life balance has become a key issue for many of today’s managers, particularly for women (Bailyn et al, 2001). In fact, it is a major barrier that prevents female employees to break through the glass ceiling. Hence, the way in which some high profile women manage their work/life balance has become of great interest in the media, and the few women who do apparently manage this well are role models for many younger female managers. As early as 1978, Shapiro et al. noted that selection of role models was encompassing patterns of how to manage work/life issues as well as “on-the-job” behaviors.

However, younger women may reject as role models the women at the top who do not have children. They are sometimes seen as having given up an essential part of their emotional and social capital to achieve success on masculine terms. Ely’s (1994) study indicated that female managers in male dominated professional firms were less likely to be good role models especially for young female employees as they are viewed as women who were forming themselves in male moulds.

In fact, in Mauritius statistics show that on a typical working day, a working women spend around 7 hours at work and 3 hours 30 minutes during household chores and caring for the children compared to 8 hours and 1 hour respectively for a working man (Central Statistical Office, 2010). Eventually, some women may not be willing to sacrifice their family life and reach the higher level of the hierarchy where there is greater need for commitment and extra hours of work. Instead, they are happy below the glass ceiling as there they can keep a balance family life.

8.5. Incidence of Sexual Harassment.

Sexual harassment affects all female employees in some form or the other. It is a major issue at the workplace as it hinders the development of women within a comfortable work environment thus, preventing women to crack through the glass ceiling.

The European Commission code of practice draws attention to the fact that sexual harassment ‘pollutes’ the working environment; millions of women ,and some men suffer. As a result of this uncomfortable working environment employees take time off, are less efficient, and, in the worst cases, leave their jobs. Therefore it is clear that female employees leave their jobs due to sexual harassment at the lower level of the organization itself and thus, are unable to climb the job ladder.

Brake et al (1992) have taken findings for various types of harassment in various settings, and conclude that female worker or student has at least a 40 percent chance of encountering some form of sexual harassment in her place of work or study.

Eradicating sexual harassment is indeed, a major challenge to attitudes. There is a need to devise formal procedures to deal with such complaints. It is important to ensure that effective measures are made available and to be used in cases of harassment (Wilson, 2002).

8.6. Organization and Culture.

Organizational culture is another barrier that prevents women to shatter the glass ceiling. The masculine culture can be characterized by working long hours, having to cancel holidays due to work commitments, and bullying. Women who leave work at 5pm are considered to be less committed (Liff and Ward, 2001). In organizations, there is no sign of progression towards a friendlier environment which include flexible working arrangements. Female employees fear to voice out these issues as they maybe considered as less committed. Women then continue to have trouble in breaking the glass ceiling. Eventually, according to Wilson (2002) where men and women work in the same industry there is discrimination. Women sew what men cut out, women serve what men cook, women run machines which men service are examples of organizational culture that hinder women advancement.

8.7. Women and Performance Appraisal.

Female employees are unable to shatter the glass ceiling due to their poor evaluation during the performance appraisal system. Some authors have argued the reasons behind such poor evaluations.

Lott (1992) had shown that women are less known to the evaluator; thus, the result is more likely to be negative. On the other hand, where women are known well, as in a situation where someone they know is appraising them, the evaluation would be more positive.

But, Thomas (1987) demonstrated that the words used to evaluate men and women in appraisal are different. Women were ‘less competent, logical and mature’ and their performance required fewer recommendations and only vague praise. Therefore, female employees maybe having less equal opportunities due to their poor evaluation during the appraisal (Wilson and Beaton, 1992).

Alimo – Metcalfe (1993) has also reported significant differences in the perceptions of women and men in appraisal interview in an English context. Women found it more difficult than men to: talk freely about what they wanted to discuss; discuss their relationship with their appraiser; give feedback to their appraiser; and identify their areas of strength.

Besides, research on self-assessment and 360 degree feedback shows that women managers are less likely to overestimate their performance than their male counterparts, they tend to rate themselves lower than men do and lower than their own bosses rate them (Beyer, 1990; Lindeman et al, 1995; Fletcher, 1999).

Ultimately, more general studies of performance show that female give lower estimates of their performance or ability. It has been suggested that this may be due to gender difference in self presentation, rather than self confidence (Daubman and Sigall, 1997).

In 1990, the concept of glass ceiling pervaded the literature to describe the paucity of women, heading public and private sector organizations (Maume, 2004). Earlier, Morrison et al. (1987) gave new insight to the issues women face in their journey through the executive positions of the corporate organizations. Subsequently, the term “glass-ceiling-effect” became synonymous worldwide with the struggles women face in attempting to move up to the senior, executive and top management positions in corporate organizations (Wirth, 2001). Moreover, in Mauritius Dr. Ramgutty-Wong (1998) conducted a study on the glass ceiling with the title “CEO attitudes towards managers in corporate Mauritius”. Her research work covered the degree of involvement of women in decision making in organizations and whether top managers were aware of the problems that the female employees encountered. Thus, women face the glass ceiling when despite seeing the top jobs; they still cannot reach them due to the discriminatory barriers (Maume, 2004).

2. WOMEN AND THE GLASS CEILING: AN ILLUSION OR A REALITY?

While initially glass ceiling studies were particularly concerned with the failure of women in reaching the senior and executive positions hence, it was essential to focus on examining the reasons for inequality within management positions and career trajectories (Maume, 2004; Morrison et al., 1987). However, Cotter et al. (2001) profound description of the term glass ceiling as a specific form of generic inequality existing at the top level of the hierarchy contradicts others (Reskin and Padavic, 2001; Maume, 2004) claiming that the glass ceiling exist in lower levels and working class jobs. They further explain that immobility can occur in all occupations, but, if female employees limit themselves to certain jobs, then it is more to do with specific inequality and not with the glass ceiling, as it only exists when there is discrimination in career advancement. Hence, Cotter et al. (2001) three criteria for the glass ceiling occurrence suggest that it occurs when despite having similar abilities and potential as men, women face barriers in their career advancements, it also occurs when due to limited promotional prospects; women are discouraged from the initial position on the job ladder, thus raising men’s numbers to survive till the top levels and lastly, while organizations may be willing to pay out high salaries to women, they still hesitate to place them in positions where they can make an impact on organizations profitability, therefore, glass ceiling is created.

3. THEORIES AND MODELS

Theories and models accounting for the emergence of gender-related behaviors in organizations, and thus the creation of a glass ceiling, fall into three categories:

(1) Biological explanations;

(2) Socialization explanations; and

(3) Structural/cultural explanations (Lueptow et al, 2001).

Biological models argue that there are biological differences between men and women. These differences are thought to be a result of an “evolutionary model postulating constant gendered differences based on genetic patterns evolved from adaptation to differing reproductive challenges of early males and females” Today, biological models and evolutionary models usually are not applied in the context of leadership differences between men and women leaders (Lueptow et al, 2001). Thus, biological model state that the differences between men and women is genetic.

Instead, socialization and structural/cultural explanations have received much more attention than biological models (Bartol et al., 2003) and have been called “the most accepted explanation for gender differences” (Lueptow et al., 2001). Both models are social constructionist that accounts for the differences between genders. Social constructionist theories have argued that biological differences definition varies across cultures. Instead, it is the society’s expectations that produce and maintain inequality between genders (Wood and Eagly, 2002). More specifically, authors of socialization theories argued, “gender identity and differences are acquired through various developmental processes associated with life stages, such as schooling and work life” (Bartol et al, 2003), and therefore are based on individuals’ socialization. Thus, the social constructionist model argues that gender differences arise merely due to the perception of society. Women and men acquire differences through their developmental process. For example, level of education and interest in career development and among others. Therefore, these were the theories that depict a picture of the emergence of gender issues in organizations and the creation of the glass ceiling.

4. TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLE

4.1. Definition of Gender.

Gender is a process through which social life is organized at the level of the individual, family and society (Connell, 1993). Thus, gender is crucial in the structure of organizations. Based on individual human experience, gender defines the parameters of how women’s lives are different from men’s (Rohrbaugh, 1981; Nicolson, 1992a), and through the recognition that individuals are in possession of a gendered self or subjectivity through which they themselves interpret their own experiences and operate constraints (Hollway, 1989).

4.2. Stereotyping.

Gender stereotyping is one among the most prominent reasons why women tend to pursue different occupations and why horizontal and vertical segregation of labor markets prevails (UNED-UK’s report, 1998). Gender stereotypes of occupations are manifested in the belief that certain occupations are “women’s” occupations and others are “men’s” (Gatton, 1999). For example, when a decision is made to offer an important assignment to a man rather than to a woman, based on the assumption that women are not free to take on time – consuming tasks because of family commitment. Ultimately, women may be excluded from senior management positions because of perceptions that they will somehow change the management process by virtue of their gender.

5. WOMEN AND EDUCATION.

Marks el al (1997) stated that the educational environments may not be conducive to women’s development. In fact, enrolment statistics for 2009 from the Ministry of Education revealed that at secondary level enrolment dropped to 84 percent for girls compared to 75 percent for boys. Moreover, it is also proven that girls performed better than boys in the examinations namely Certificate of Primary Education, School Certificate and Higher School Certificate. The table below illustrates the differences in boys’ and girls’ performance which is higher at lower level of education and narrowed down as the level increases (Central Statistical Office (Mauritius, 2010).

Pass rates (%) at CPE, SC and HSC, Republic of Mauritius, 2009

 

Male

Female

Difference

CPE

62.3

74.5

12.2

SC

71.9

82.6

10.7

HSC

74.3

82.1

7.8

Source: (Central Statistical Office (Mauritius, 2010).

However, the number of female students enrolled in tertiary or higher education continues to rise. The entrants of female in undergraduate course in Mauritius 2009 in public institutions are 10912. It increased from 50.76 percent in 2005 to 54.89 percent in 2009. In addition, considering the number of entry of female in tertiary education in Public, Private and Overseas institutions there were a rise of 52.35 percent in 2005 to 54.84 percent in 2009 (Tertiary Education Commission, 2010). Despite this, differences in the nature and quality of tertiary education and training for females and males continue to pose barriers for many female when competing with men for promotion to professional and managerial positions. Eventually, females are unable to break through the glass ceiling.

6. CAREER CHOICE AND DEVELOPMENT.

6.1. Career.

A career is more than just the job or sequence of jobs a person holds over a lifetime. A career is the individually perceived sequence of attitudes and behaviors associated with work-related experiences and activities over a person’s life (Felman, 1988; Hall, 1976).

6.2. Women and Career.

From 1900 to 1980, the percentage of women in the work force increased from less than 20 percent to over 50 percent (Hall, 1976; Ross, 1983). It is estimated that by the year 2000, 65 percent of the entrants in the work force will be women (Powell, 1983). However, in 2009, Mauritius had a lesser proportion of women than men who were in employment or economically active. The economic activity rate was 43 percent for women against 76 percent for men. Working women were 182,500 in number and accounted for 35 percent of the total Mauritian workforce. They were mostly engaged (53%) in the teaching, nursing and health-related, manufacturing and trade sectors. They were also working in traditional ‘female occupations’ with 61% of them in clerical positions, sale and service and in ‘elementary’ occupations. On the other hand, a significant proportion have entered executive and professional specialty occupations with 19% in the occupation group ‘legislation, professionals and semi-professionals’ (Central Statistical Office, 2010).

Employment by occupational group and sex, 2009

Source: (Central Statistical Office (Mauritius, 2010).

Therefore, the statistics show that women are still working in lower positioned jobs and that only a few have succeeded to climb up the job ladder.

7. HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES.

7.1. Women and Recruitment.

Until the mid-1980, boys were usually recruited with A-level, girls with O-level. Men were offered greater prospects compared to women who had to do routine office work (Benett and Carter, 1983; Crompton, 1989; Savage, 1992a). This creates occupational segregation and creates stereotypical view on men and women’s role and abilities. However, over the last two decades employment for men has fallen as a result of an increase in women employment. For examples, between 1984 and 1999 the proportion of men who were economically active declined from 88 to 84 percent while the proportion of women rose from 66 to 72 percent in USA (Equal Opportunities Commission, 2001). However, in Mauritius women are over represented among the unemployed. The number of the unemployed women was 25,700 in 2009 compared to 15,800 men. Female, unemployment rate at 12.3% was almost thrice the rate for men (Central Statistical Office, 2010). Hence, due to certain barriers female employees still struggle to crack through the glass ceiling in Mauritius.

7.2. Legislation and Female Employees Recruitment.

In certain job advertisement the employers tend to attract only male applicants by using sexist job titles such as “salesman”. However, the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 in USA makes it unlawful to discriminate in an advertisement by favoring either sex. Yet, there maybe exceptions where the job can be performed only by men. Moreover, there are unisex job titles such as directors, managers and officers that are non-discriminatory. Therefore, this enables female also to apply for these high profile jobs and thus, encouraging them to break through the glass ceiling (Armstrong, 2009).

8. BARRIERS TO WOMEN’S CAREER DEVELOPMENT / PROGRESSION.

Barriers which hinder career development of women are complex and varied. Although many women hold management positions, few have made the breakthrough to top – level positions.

8.1 Promotion and Pay.

If women can perform as well as men then, pay and promotion should be identical. Yet, they tend to differ (Tosi et al, 1993). This results as a solid barrier for women not being able to crack through the glass ceiling. Pay and promotion is an essential tool to motivate employees to climb up the job ladder. Unfortunately, as female employees are exposed to barriers that prevent them from getting a pay rise or promotion, they are bound to stay below the glass ceiling. Some authors pointed out certain factors that explain the low progression rate of female employees in terms of promotion and pay.

Salary level is undoubtedly often equated with seniority and power, and if women want to establish themselves in the higher level of the hierarchy, they will have to start by no longer accepting inferior salary scales to men. Unluckily, employers sometimes play on these female attitudes towards pay (Cooper et al, 1992). Similarly, Gerhart (1987) suggests that one of the important factors contributing to the differences in the pay of female and male employees is the starting salaries paid to both for similar jobs.

Second, women are overrepresented in low – paying industries. Ward and Mueller (1985) studied the effects of industrial sector and organizational level on wages of men and women. Women are found in disproportionate numbers in service industries in which there are low profit margins, undeveloped internal labor markets, low job skill needs, and lower wage rates.

Third, in some organizations women may be doing less complex jobs at lower organizational level and thus, they get a low pay. In a study of work assignments in manufacturing plants, Form and McMillen (1983) found that women were more frequently assigned to simple repetitive tasks in which they used hand tools, whereas men were assigned to work on machines that required higher skill and on which they had more autonomy.

Fourth, a portion of the discrepancy can be attributed to different rates of pay and promotion at lower and higher organizational levels. Women do well at lower levels in organization, where their promotion rates and salary progression equals or exceeds that of men (Gerhart et al, 1987). These salary progression rates change at higher levels. Thus, preventing women progress and climb the job ladder.

The research cited above has been done during a period of significant change in the roles and number of women in the work force. Indeed, there has been progress, and luckily, it is likely to continue as the women who have entered the managerial and professional labor force at lower organizational levels have advanced in their careers.

8.2. Training and Development.

Training and development is a fundamental tool that enables employees to acquire certain skills that enable them to contribute in the achievement of the organization’s objectives. However, female employees often show their dissatisfaction towards limited training courses offered to them (Cooper, 1992). In fact, some authors have argued upon the provision of gender mixed or all female management training courses.

Harlan and Weiss (1980) argued that all female management training courses only highlight perceived differences between men and women managers, and prove detrimental in the long run. They suggest the following reasons for this:

Women maybe needing more training compared to men as perhaps, they lack certain abilities.

This may cause tension between men and women as women maybe receiving ‘favored treatment’.

On the other hand, other authors (Davidson et al, 1985) argue strongly that research evidence has proved that all-women management groups are less threatening and enable women not to be dominated by the dominant group namely the male employees in terms of speech, role allocation, loyalty affiliation of managerial skills, confidence building and assertiveness training. Langrish (1981) suggests that the arguments against women-only management training programmes are primarily of three kinds:

‘Real world’ arguments, that is, to be able to work alongside men as successful managers, women should be able to undergo training with men. This will enable them to face the real world.

The ‘special needs’ view suggest that women have special needs hence, should label them ‘different’ that is, inferior to men.

The ‘coping’ argument state that women have to learn how to work with men as their superiors, colleagues or subordinates, the best way can do this is to experience working with them on management courses.

These arguments are relatively weak for the following reasons:

Women are often assigned roles by the management trainers that restrict their learning potential and experience. They are given roles such as mother, seductress, pet or iron maiden-roles (Cooper et al, 1992).

In a gender-mixed training course, women are less likely to be able to develop valuable ways of learning new skills due to the presence of overwhelming numbers of men. In a recent review of women’s training needs, Colwill and Vinnicombe (1991) reaffirmed that in all-female groups, women are more able to admit faults, identify needs and areas where they feel inadequate, and engage in interactions which develop their strengths.

Eventually, Herbert and Yost (1979) believe that training women in managerial skills is of little value, if they are not allowed to demonstrate their skills on the job or not rewarded. Thus, all the arguments show the reason for which female employees cannot shatter the glass ceiling.

8.3. Lack of Female Role Models.

As people seek role models as part of their career development, they often search for individuals with similar backgrounds to themselves. However, this is difficult for many women. Consequently, young women are often said to be disadvantaged by the lack of female role models at the top of organizations (Vinnicombe et al, 2000). Thus, female employees tend to restrict themselves below the glass ceiling as there is a lack of female role model above the glass ceiling. Indeed, a Catalyst (2000) survey of current MBA students in the USA reported that 87 per cent of women and 77 per cent of men said that it was important or very important to feature more women business leaders as role models. However, in an earlier Canadian public sector study of 1,579 senior managers, Javidan et al. (1995) found that female subordinates had no problems in accepting superiors of either sex as role models. In contrast, they found that female superiors were not seen as role models by male subordinates. The critical factor for acceptance of a role model by both sexes was whether the subordinate perceived the superior to be successful or not, but the sex difference indicates persistence of seeing a male to be the manager (Schein and Mueller, 1992).

8.4. Work-Life Balance.

Work-life balance has become a key issue for many of today’s managers, particularly for women (Bailyn et al, 2001). In fact, it is a major barrier that prevents female employees to break through the glass ceiling. Hence, the way in which some high profile women manage their work/life balance has become of great interest in the media, and the few women who do apparently manage this well are role models for many younger female managers. As early as 1978, Shapiro et al. noted that selection of role models was encompassing patterns of how to manage work/life issues as well as “on-the-job” behaviors.

However, younger women may reject as role models the women at the top who do not have children. They are sometimes seen as having given up an essential part of their emotional and social capital to achieve success on masculine terms. Ely’s (1994) study indicated that female managers in male dominated professional firms were less likely to be good role models especially for young female employees as they are viewed as women who were forming themselves in male moulds.

In fact, in Mauritius statistics show that on a typical working day, a working women spend around 7 hours at work and 3 hours 30 minutes during household chores and caring for the children compared to 8 hours and 1 hour respectively for a working man (Central Statistical Office, 2010). Eventually, some women may not be willing to sacrifice their family life and reach the higher level of the hierarchy where there is greater need for commitment and extra hours of work. Instead, they are happy below the glass ceiling as there they can keep a balance family life.

8.5. Incidence of Sexual Harassment.

Sexual harassment affects all female employees in some form or the other. It is a major issue at the workplace as it hinders the development of women within a comfortable work environment thus, preventing women to crack through the glass ceiling.

The European Commission code of practice draws attention to the fact that sexual harassment ‘pollutes’ the working environment; millions of women ,and some men suffer. As a result of this uncomfortable working environment employees take time off, are less efficient, and, in the worst cases, leave their jobs. Therefore it is clear that female employees leave their jobs due to sexual harassment at the lower level of the organization itself and thus, are unable to climb the job ladder.

Brake et al (1992) have taken findings for various types of harassment in various settings, and conclude that female worker or student has at least a 40 percent chance of encountering some form of sexual harassment in her place of work or study.

Eradicating sexual harassment is indeed, a major challenge to attitudes. There is a need to devise formal procedures to deal with such complaints. It is important to ensure that effective measures are made available and to be used in cases of harassment (Wilson, 2002).

8.6. Organization and Culture.

Organizational culture is another barrier that prevents women to shatter the glass ceiling. The masculine culture can be characterized by working long hours, having to cancel holidays due to work commitments, and bullying. Women who leave work at 5pm are considered to be less committed (Liff and Ward, 2001). In organizations, there is no sign of progression towards a friendlier environment which include flexible working arrangements. Female employees fear to voice out these issues as they maybe considered as less committed. Women then continue to have trouble in breaking the glass ceiling. Eventually, according to Wilson (2002) where men and women work in the same industry there is discrimination. Women sew what men cut out, women serve what men cook, women run machines which men service are examples of organizational culture that hinder women advancement.

8.7. Women and Performance Appraisal.

Female employees are unable to shatter the glass ceiling due to their poor evaluation during the performance appraisal system. Some authors have argued the reasons behind such poor evaluations.

Lott (1992) had shown that women are less known to the evaluator; thus, the result is more likely to be negative. On the other hand, where women are known well, as in a situation where someone they know is appraising them, the evaluation would be more positive.

But, Thomas (1987) demonstrated that the words used to evaluate men and women in appraisal are different. Women were ‘less competent, logical and mature’ and their performance required fewer recommendations and only vague praise. Therefore, female employees maybe having less equal opportunities due to their poor evaluation during the appraisal (Wilson and Beaton, 1992).

Alimo – Metcalfe (1993) has also reported significant differences in the perceptions of women and men in appraisal interview in an English context. Women found it more difficult than men to: talk freely about what they wanted to discuss; discuss their relationship with their appraiser; give feedback to their appraiser; and identify their areas of strength.

Besides, research on self-assessment and 360 degree feedback shows that women managers are less likely to overestimate their performance than their male counterparts, they tend to rate themselves lower than men do and lower than their own bosses rate them (Beyer, 1990; Lindeman et al, 1995; Fletcher, 1999).

Ultimately, more general studies of performance show that female give lower estimates of their performance or ability. It has been suggested that this may be due to gender difference in self presentation, rather than self confidence (Daubman and Sigall, 1997).

Mauritian Law Protecting Against Discrimination In Workplace Sociology Essay

The Constitution of Mauritius is regarded as being the supreme Law which clearly protects this philosophy of equality at Chapter 2 Section (3) and (16) which imparts for non discrimination as follows:

It is hereby recognized and declared that Mauritius there have existed and shall continue to exist without discrimination by reason of race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedom of others and for the public interest each and all of the following human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Section 16

Protection from discrimination

Subject to subsections (4), (5) and (7)-no law shall make any provision that discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

Subject to subsections (6), (7) and (8)- no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting in the performance of any public function conferred by any law or otherwise in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.

The Government of Mauritius has also passed law to eliminate all forms of Gender Discrimination and sexual harassment in certain areas of public activity under Sex Discrimination Act No. 43 of 2002. This act protects a worker from all forms of inequality in employment related to recruitment, selection, training, on grounds of gender, marital status and family responsibilities.

Gender inequality in the local context

The Economic and Social Indicators (ESI) on gender statistics represents women and men in the Republic of Mauritius. The ESI is based on latest available sex disaggregated information from administrative resources and household surveys. Some of the statistics presented therefore refer to years earlier than 2011.In 2011, Mauritius ranked 63rd out of 146 countries according to the Gender Inequality Index of the UN. The index reflects inequality in achievements between women and men in reproductive health, empowerment and labour market.

Before 1950’s it has been found that women were in fewer number than men in Mauritius. However, the female population has been growing rapidly such that in the 50’s there were almost equal numbers of men and women. This B in the population has been maintained for some 40 years. As from 1990, women have been increasingly outnumbering men over the years.

Chart 1 — Population by sex, Republic of Mauritius, 1851 – 2011

In 2011, there were 18,600 more women than men. Out of a total population of 1,286,000, there were 652,300 women against 633,700 men, that is 97 men for every 100 women. Though women are more numerous in the total population, this is not the case in all age groups. At the younger ages (under 30 years), men are more numerous mainly due to more births of baby boys than girls. There were 102.4 males births for every 100 female births in 2011.

At ages 30 years and above, women outnumber men and their proportion increases at higher ages. The male-female ratio which was 98.1 for the ages 30-39 years reached 50.9 among those aged 80 years and over; there were around 2 women for every man in this age group. The main reason for this imbalance is that women live longer than men.

In 2011, it has been found that a lesser proportion of women than men of working age (16 years and above) were active, that is, in employment or looking for work. The economic activity rate for women was 43.7% against 75.5% for men. The active population stood at 582,800 with 363,600 men and 219,200 women. Men and women have a similar pattern of economic activity during their life that is less active at the younger and older age groups. The activity rates for both are highest in the age group 30 to 45 years.

Chart 13 – Activity rate (%) by age group and sex, 2011

Some 191,800 women held a job in 2011 and accounted for 35.7% of the Mauritian employed population. Working women were more qualified than their male counterparts, with 22% holding a tertiary qualification against 17% for men. There were an almost equal proportion of working men and women having a School Certificate but 7.4% women had a Higher School Certificate compared to 5% for men.

Chart 14 – Distribution of employed person by sector and sex, 2011

Both men and women had a high proportion of their working population in the tertiary sector (covering trade, hotels & restaurants, transport and other service industries), 68% for men and 57% for women. The secondary sector (covering manufacturing, electricity & water and construction) accounted for one third of the working men and one quarter of the working women. While women represented some 40% of the employment in the manufacturing sector, they comprised less than 1% of the construction industry.

Women were more likely than men to be employees, with 85% of the employed female in that employment status compared to 78% among the men. They were also much less likely than men to head their own business; while 21% of working men were employers or own account workers, only some 11% of women held that status.

On average an employed woman works 38 hours, 6 hours less than a man. However, women heading their own business and those contributing in the family business worked respectively 7.5 hours and 8.2 hours less than their male counterparts.

Both women and men worked fewer hours in the agricultural sector than in other sectors of the economy. However, women worked 10 hours less than men in that sector. Women worked 8 hours less in public administration, 5 hours less in hotels & restaurants and 3 hours less in manufacturing, trade & education sectors.

Women as well as men tend to work fewer hours at the older age. The difference in hours worked by women and men varies across ages; it increases with age to reach a peak of 8.3 hours at the age group 45 to 49 years, and decreases thereafter.

In spite of being fewer in the labour force, women are over represented among the unemployed. Unemployed women numbered 27,300 in 2011 compared to 18,800 men. Female unemployment rate stood at 12.5%, much higher than the rate of 5.2% for male.

Chart 16 – Unemployment rate (%) by age group and sex, 2011

Unemployment rate is higher among women than men at all ages, except for the elderly. The difference in unemployment rate is more pronounced at the very young age.

Among unemployed women with previous work experience, 22% left their last job due to marriage, childbirth and household responsibilities. Another 13% women were unemployed following closure of establishment. The main sectors where the unemployed women worked previously are manufacturing (29%), trade (25%) and hotels and restaurants (10%).

The Constitution of Mauritius is regarded as being the supreme Law which clearly protects this philosophy of equality at Chapter 2 Section (3) and (16) which imparts for non discrimination as follows:

It is hereby recognized and declared that Mauritius there have existed and shall continue to exist without discrimination by reason of race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedom of others and for the public interest each and all of the following human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Section 16

Protection from discrimination

Subject to subsections (4), (5) and (7)-no law shall make any provision that discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

Subject to subsections (6), (7) and (8)- no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting in the performance of any public function conferred by any law or otherwise in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.

The Government of Mauritius has also passed law to eliminate all forms of Gender Discrimination and sexual harassment in certain areas of public activity under Sex Discrimination Act No. 43 of 2002. This act protects a worker from all forms of inequality in employment related to recruitment, selection, training, on grounds of gender, marital status and family responsibilities.

Gender inequality in the local context

The Economic and Social Indicators (ESI) on gender statistics represents women and men in the Republic of Mauritius. The ESI is based on latest available sex disaggregated information from administrative resources and household surveys. Some of the statistics presented therefore refer to years earlier than 2011.In 2011, Mauritius ranked 63rd out of 146 countries according to the Gender Inequality Index of the UN. The index reflects inequality in achievements between women and men in reproductive health, empowerment and labour market.

Before 1950’s it has been found that women were in fewer number than men in Mauritius. However, the female population has been growing rapidly such that in the 50’s there were almost equal numbers of men and women. This B in the population has been maintained for some 40 years. As from 1990, women have been increasingly outnumbering men over the years.

Chart 1 — Population by sex, Republic of Mauritius, 1851 – 2011

In 2011, there were 18,600 more women than men. Out of a total population of 1,286,000, there were 652,300 women against 633,700 men, that is 97 men for every 100 women. Though women are more numerous in the total population, this is not the case in all age groups. At the younger ages (under 30 years), men are more numerous mainly due to more births of baby boys than girls. There were 102.4 males births for every 100 female births in 2011.

At ages 30 years and above, women outnumber men and their proportion increases at higher ages. The male-female ratio which was 98.1 for the ages 30-39 years reached 50.9 among those aged 80 years and over; there were around 2 women for every man in this age group. The main reason for this imbalance is that women live longer than men.

In 2011, it has been found that a lesser proportion of women than men of working age (16 years and above) were active, that is, in employment or looking for work. The economic activity rate for women was 43.7% against 75.5% for men. The active population stood at 582,800 with 363,600 men and 219,200 women. Men and women have a similar pattern of economic activity during their life that is less active at the younger and older age groups. The activity rates for both are highest in the age group 30 to 45 years.

Chart 13 – Activity rate (%) by age group and sex, 2011

Some 191,800 women held a job in 2011 and accounted for 35.7% of the Mauritian employed population. Working women were more qualified than their male counterparts, with 22% holding a tertiary qualification against 17% for men. There were an almost equal proportion of working men and women having a School Certificate but 7.4% women had a Higher School Certificate compared to 5% for men.

Chart 14 – Distribution of employed person by sector and sex, 2011

Both men and women had a high proportion of their working population in the tertiary sector (covering trade, hotels & restaurants, transport and other service industries), 68% for men and 57% for women. The secondary sector (covering manufacturing, electricity & water and construction) accounted for one third of the working men and one quarter of the working women. While women represented some 40% of the employment in the manufacturing sector, they comprised less than 1% of the construction industry.

Women were more likely than men to be employees, with 85% of the employed female in that employment status compared to 78% among the men. They were also much less likely than men to head their own business; while 21% of working men were employers or own account workers, only some 11% of women held that status.

On average an employed woman works 38 hours, 6 hours less than a man. However, women heading their own business and those contributing in the family business worked respectively 7.5 hours and 8.2 hours less than their male counterparts.

Both women and men worked fewer hours in the agricultural sector than in other sectors of the economy. However, women worked 10 hours less than men in that sector. Women worked 8 hours less in public administration, 5 hours less in hotels & restaurants and 3 hours less in manufacturing, trade & education sectors.

Women as well as men tend to work fewer hours at the older age. The difference in hours worked by women and men varies across ages; it increases with age to reach a peak of 8.3 hours at the age group 45 to 49 years, and decreases thereafter.

In spite of being fewer in the labour force, women are over represented among the unemployed. Unemployed women numbered 27,300 in 2011 compared to 18,800 men. Female unemployment rate stood at 12.5%, much higher than the rate of 5.2% for male.

Chart 16 – Unemployment rate (%) by age group and sex, 2011

Unemployment rate is higher among women than men at all ages, except for the elderly. The difference in unemployment rate is more pronounced at the very young age.

Among unemployed women with previous work experience, 22% left their last job due to marriage, childbirth and household responsibilities. Another 13% women were unemployed following closure of establishment. The main sectors where the unemployed women worked previously are manufacturing (29%), trade (25%) and hotels and restaurants (10%).

Corporate Social Responsibility In Developing Nations Sociology Essay

The phenomenal stretch of Globalization has touched and affected, positively or negatively as well, practically every aspect of human existence, through its varying tentacles in its ever-propagating areas of influence. The recognition and acceptance of the phenomena of Corporate Social Responsibility (hereinafter referred to as CSR), in developed as well as developing countries, is a doting example of the same. It needs a special mention that CSR is nowhere a legally sanctioned document or observance, but it indeed, has come forth as a minimal standard as to the governance of business at global level, with international reference standards set by the United Nations, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines and International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions.

The primary reason as to why this phenomena is rising at such a fast pace, is the global competitiveness ensuing between the business houses of different countries. The corporates mainly demonstrate the extra responsibility to earn the goodwill of the market, and CSR helps in building loyalty and trust amongst shareholders, employees and customers. In this sense CSR denotes a voluntary endeavour by the big business houses to look into the varied issues and concerns of the public at large, apart from the profit-maximising objectives.

CSR is closely linked with the principle of sustainable development, which argues that enterprises should make decisions based not only on financial factors such as profits or dividends but also based on immediate and long term social and environmental consequences of its activities. CSR has a significant role in controlling the perils of uncontrolled development, satisfying the needs of the present generation and at the same time ensuring that the resources of future generations is not jeopardized. [1] The inclusion of the objective of ‘sustainable development’ within the CSR agenda magnifies the duties and responsibilities of the big business houses, upto a large extent, which cannot be made limited as per any parameters. The realization of the ultimate objective of sustainable development is a long and continuous process, and is rather more inclusive, which includes the interest of the developing nations also.

The impact of CSR in context of developing nations, as evident, is rather a negative impact. The primary reason as identified by the authors seems to be the inappropriate approach towards the practical applicability of the CSR in the developing countries. There is lacunae in the structural approach towards implementation of the CSR agenda within the developing countries, mainly due to the irresponsible inactiveness on the part of the government of the developing countries, in framing its policies and regulations as per the international norms and requirements, as CSR is largely a global phenomena.

In this research paper, a structural and conceptual analysis is done with regard to the difficulties faced by the developing countries in implementing the CSR initiatives. This paper is an attempt to identify such issues which attributes to the failure of CSR in developing nations, and also identify the correct possible approaches to properly reap up the benefits of the CSR agenda and initiatives evolved mainly through the internationalization of the initiatives taken in the developed countries, by various approaches to be discussed herein.

EVOLUTION OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS A FULCRUM OF SOCIAL RESPONSIVENESS

What exactly is inferred from the social responsibility of the corporations? The corporations are generally expected to strengthen and mobilize the economy by enhancing profit, the social implications of which are highly overlooked. The concept of CSR refers to the general belief held by many that modern businesses have a responsibility to society that extends beyond the stock holders or investors in the firm. That responsibility, of course, is to make money or profits for the owners. [2] In 1960, Keith Davis suggested that social responsibility refers to businesses’ “decisions and actions taken for reasons at least partially beyond the firm’s direct economic or technical interest.” Also it has been argued by Eells and Walton (1961) that CSR refers to the “problems that arise when corporate enterprise casts its shadow on the social scene, and the ethical principles that ought to govern the relationship between corporation and society. [3] 

The current wave of interest in CSR dates from the early 1990s. [4] However, in recent years the CSR has emerged as an inclusive and global concept to embrace corporate social responsiveness, and the entire spectrum of socially beneficial activities of businesses. It follows the trend of a diffusion process of policy instruments from North to South and therefore of a global convergence of policy structures. [5] 

Now the term ‘social’ within the CSR is again a vague concept and enlarges the sphere of the corporate responsiveness. The social dimension of the CSR can effectively be attributed to the organizations’ stakeholders, who are in the immediate connect to the corporation. Stakeholders denote the group of persons who have a stake, a claim, or an interest in the operations and decisions of the corporation. This bond of the corporation with the stake-holders practically denotes the area of social operation of the corporations. The

The idea of CSR cannot be traced as to the place of its origin and evolution, since it is mainly a progeny of the globalization, which is encumbrancing in itself, the world at large. Therefore, the concept of stake-holder management becomes an effective instrument to analyse the social impact of the corporations. This methodology can have, or rather it has appeared to be an aberration, which practically excludes the impact on the developing nations, as it is a very common fact that the activity of the stake-holders of the developing nations cannot match upto that of the developed ones.

One tangible result that has certainly been achieved by the current CSR”movement” is that it “has got people talking about worker rights, global governance, sustainable enterprise and all manner of topics that have relevance to the well-being of the poor and marginalized”. [6] 

The effective implementation of CSR in developing countries has come forth to be recognized as a challenge after the vision in the year 2000 was instilled in the Milleneum Development Goals (MDGs) as ‘a world with less poverty, hunger and disease, greater survival prospects for mothers and their infants, better educated children, equal opportunities for women, and a healthier environment’.

CSR AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: IDENTIFYING THE CONNECTION

The CSR in connection with developing countries can be considered as ‘to represent ‘the formal and informal ways in which business makes a contribution to improving the governance, social, ethical, labour and environmental conditions of the developing countries in which they operate, while remaining sensitive to prevailing religious, historical and cultural contexts’. [7] The analysis of the effectiveness of the CSR cannot be considered to be complete unless its impact on the developing countries is identified, as they represent the most rapidly expanding economies, providing for a lucrative market for the growth of the corporate business. It is a common fact that the world’s poor are distressingly plentiful, and despite of the vastness of their market, they are largely unexplored by the multinational companies, in assumption that the people of the developing countries are more busy in sustaining their normal living rather than going for any developmental incentives. Also it is assumed that various barriers to commerce – corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, currency fluctuations, bureaucratic red tape etc, make it impossible to do business profitable in these regions.

The authors assert this fact that the above notions and assumptions are largely outdated. It is well-evident in the current scenario that the large number of corporate houses prefer the markets in the developing countries only, as it provides them with ample oppurtunities to maximize the profitability, and the restrictions assumed are hardly existent. Moreover, certain positive trends in developing countries – from political reform, to a growing openness to investment, to the development of low-cost wireless communication networks – are reducing the barriers further while also providing businesses with greater access to even the poorest city slums and rural areas. [8] 

Since in developing countries, rural areas represents more than half of the population, for instance in India, 60% of GDP is generated in rural areas. The critical barrier to doing business in rural regions is distribution access, not a lack of buying power, but new information technology and communications infrastructures – especially wireless – promise to become an inexpensive way to establish marketing and distribution channels in these communities. [9] 

CURRENT STATE OF CSR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

It is argued that the practice of CSR is a work in progress. The idea of evolution of CSR as a concept clearly envisages the fact that it has mainly evolved through an active participation of the developed world, and then it got internationalized, and ultimately it is in a process of reaching to the developing ones also. In the present scenario, no matter what kind of effect it is producing, but it is propagating at a very fast pace, in the developing countries due to the ample market available therein. It has been seen that the developing countries also opened up their economy and whole-heatedly welcomed the advent of foreign companies into their territory as a part of their liberalization strategies. It has been quite beneficial for the foreign investors as well, since the developing countries enrich them with huge profitable market. With increased emphasis on the profit-making, the CSR development agenda has definitely taken a backseat in the developing countries. In his analysis of the relationship between companies and poorer local communities, Newell concluded that “mainstream CSR approaches assume a set of conditions that do not exist in most of the world. CSR can work, for some people, in some places, on some issues, some of the time” [10] . And in the process, the CSR looses the connect with the real life situations of the developing world.

Following are the bases on which the CSR is rendered ineffective in context of developing countries:

The Stakeholder Concept

It has been observed that, in the present time, it benefits some people and some companies in some situations. The success of CSR initiatives can be linked to the stakeholder dialogue and stakeholder engagement, who can bring together representatives of business, non-governmental and public sectors in order to identify and address aspects of social responsibility. However, in context of developing countries, this stakeholder dialogue cannot be effectively realized due to various unwanted barriers such as language, culture, education and pluralistic values, which adversely affects the negotiations and decision-making.

Moreover, one more obstacle that hampers the positive advantage of CSR in developing countries is the prioritization of the interest. As the stake-holders represents the common will of the civil society, but it depends upon their priorities and interest, the success of the CSR, for instance, those groups whose issues and problems are not taken up by the civil society organizations may also be ignored by firms. Notwithstanding the role of organized labour, the unorganized sector can rarely present a threat to a firm’s productivity, nor is the firm’s dependence on them likely to be high. Elaine Sternberg alleges that stakeholding is unworkable and destroys accountability within a firm, as the stakeholders are usually seen as all those who affect or are affected by a corporation. [11] This shows that the CSR for the unorganized sector, which represents a significant proportion of the population in developing countries (more than 50% in India) is highly neglected.

The CSR business case

It is a common practice that the companies are generally meant for their profit-maximising attributes based on the competitive advantage, and to maintain corporate reputation, the beneficial impact on staff morale, etc, and thereby the lessening the involvement of theirs in developing countries. The business case is simply the arguments and rationales as to why business people believe these concepts bring distinct benefits or advantages to companies, specifically, and the business community, generally. One of the possible explanation to the business case of the corporate is given by Simon Zadek, who says that the corporate follow the defensive approach, i.e., companies should pursue CSR to avoid the pressures that create costs for them. [12] The second approach identified by Zadek is the cost-benefit approach, which holds that firm will undertake those activities that yield a greater benefit than cost. The third approach can be that the firms will recognize the changing environment and engage in CSR as a part of a deliberate corporate strategy. As a consequence, CSR is commonly focused on add-on measures and technical solutions, to a certain extent neglecting the contextual environment or even the intended beneficiaries that are addressed by the CSR measures. In this sense, the big business-hubs only act so as to maintain their healthy reputation, and thereby neglecting their social responsibilities, and even if they pursue their social responsibilities, the interest of the developing countries is even not represented there, as the issues are normally evolved in the developed world, which are quite different to that of the developing world.

The inappropriate CSR agenda

Though CSR has evolved as an umbrella concept, but still there many issues which are left unaddressed under the ambit of CSR, and which renders the effective applicability of CSR in developing countries, a potentially difficult task to achieve. The CSR agenda are mainly framed in developed countries, and hence they could not identify the practical situations faced by the developing world, like tax avoidance and transfer-pricing problems, the resource curse effects of the influx of the foreign aid or revenues, etc. This problem is ever-propagating since there is inactiveness on the part of the developing countries, mainly represented through the very few stakeholders, who do not at all represents the actual situation. The appropriateness of the CSR agenda can be ascertained once the representation of the developing countries is adequately ensured while framing the agenda, so that a more inclusive approach can be taken into consideration, including the varied concerns of the developing countries, ab initio.

POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO EFFECTIVELY IMPLEMENT THE CSR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

So far, the concept of CSR has mainly evolved through the concerns and interest of the investors, companies, campaign groups and consumers based in the developed countries. As a result of this, the CSR agenda with regard to the developing countries is very difficult to realize. It has been observed that the impact of CSR in context of the developing countries is rather negative, due to various conceptual as well as structural inadequacies. However, as observed, the developing countries are a potential hub for the growth of CSR accordingly to achieve its ultimate cherished goal of sustainable development. Although the CSR is a global phenomena, its implications can very well be sensed at the local boundaries of the individual States as well. Due to various structural differences within the developing countries, the ‘State Activism’ needs to be enhanced to properly harvest the ripe benefits of the CSR initiatives. The States need to mould the national policies so as to recognize the concerns of the stakeholders of the developed countries. The following initiatives could go a long way for procuring the positive outcome of the CSR in developing Countries:

Free acces to market

As it is well-known that the markets in the developing countries provides for a potential market and the CSR mainly acts through the stake-holders, the CSR objectives can be effectively realized by making possible maximum number of participation from the consumers, so that minute interest of the consumers which are often neglected being unidentified, can be given due consideration. The market policies of the States should be so formulated, as to promote extended participation from the consumers. This becomes especially relevant as more and more companies from developing countries are globalizing and needing to comply with international stock market listing requirements, including various forms of sustainability performance reporting and CSR code compliance.

Socio-Political Reforms

The Government of the developing countries should induce political reforms so that the problems and issues at the ground level can be identified, and then only the CSR initiatives could be effectively realized forthwith. For example, De Oliveira (2006) argues that the political and associated social and economic changes in Latin America since the 1980s, including democratization, liberalization, and privatization, have shifted the role of business towards taking greater responsibility for social and environmental issues. [13] 

Enhancing the investment incentives

It is a common assumption that there is not much scope for investment in the poorer countries as they are largely occupied by the fulfilling of their basic requirements. There comes the responsibility of the concerned Government to frame policies so as to promote ‘socially responsible investment’ (SRI), so that the corporate houses could be attracted to invest in the developing countries. For instance, In some developing countries, like South Africa, the SRI trend is well documented (AICC, 2002). In addition to featuring prominently in the SRI movement in the 1980s through the anti-apartheid disinvestment phenomenon, since 1992, South Africa has introduced more than 20 SRI funds nationally which track companies’

social, ethical, and environmental performance (Visser, 2005a).

Propagating Stakeholder Activism

As discusses earlier, that the CSR mainly works with respect to the stakeholders, who have certain pecuniary interest in the whereabouts of the business house, and they represent a very segregated part of the actual mass of population, and hence, the interest of the large part of the developing world could not be identified. The stakeholders are generally confined in the furtherance of their own petty interest, and therefore, it becomes impossible for the Corporate to identify the interests of the consumers at large. And hence, the onus shifts on the concerned government to intiate such policies to enhance stakeholder activism. In the developing world, the stakeholders agencies such as NGOs, Trade Unions, International Business Associations could be mobilized to ensure their participation in CSR activities, as they represent the class of stakeholders who mainly work at the primary level and are well aware of the existing issues and circumstances. Newell identifies the Stakeholder Activism in developing countries as civil regulation, litigation against companies, which go a long way in procuring the interest of the developing world. There are numerous examples of civil regulation in action in the developing world of which South Africa is a rather striking case in point. This has manifested itself mainly through community groups challenging companies over whether they are upholding the constitutional rights of citizens. Various landmark cases between 1994 and 2004 suggest that, although civil society still tends

to lack capacity and resources in South Africa, this has been an effective strategy. Stakeholder activism has also taken a constructive approach towards encouraging CSR, through groups like the National Business Initiative and partnerships between business and NGOs. [14] 

The theory of ‘Organizational Legitimacy’ as a possible solution the implementation of CSR in developing Countries

This theory of ‘Organizational Legitimacy’ can have various dimensions, but through a strategic view-point, the focus rests on the organization and assumes a relatively high degree of managerial control over the legitimating process. In the institutionalist tradition, a broader perspective is taken (“society looking in”), focusing on how organisations or groups of organisations adapt to their institutional environments in order to manage legitimacy. Here, legitimacy is not seen as an operational resource, but rather as a set of external constraints, forming the actions of the organization. [15] Therefore, this theory of organizational legitimacy imposes upon the business houses, a certain kind of ethical constraints, to be complied with, for effective implementation of the CSR agenda. Suchman defined Legitimacy “as a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs, and definitions”. This definition denotes the principle of moral legitimacy which the organizations follow to appear consistent with one’s external expectations in order to be able to continue business as usual. This theory need not be made universally applicable as in the judgment whether an organization and its actions are legitimate or not, is rather socially construed, and therefore subject to change depending upon the socio-political environment, the organization is established into.

CONCLUSION

In view of the above discussion, it is well-evident that the CSR has not been able to properly stretch its tentacles in the developing world, due to various conceptual and structural obstacles. The reason could be primarily attributed to the fact that mostly the issues are not recognized and thus have not come forth within the ambit of the CSR agenda, due to the shortcomings in the policies of the developing countries.

It is pertinent to observe the conceptual aspects of the CSR beyond the customary approaches being carried thereon. It cannot be necessarily assumed that CSR is ineffective in context of developing countries, rather there is problem with the identification and acknowledgement, of the issues which needs to be addressed. If the CSR standards with respect to the worker’s right and natural resource management are looked into, it is observed that for people in developing countries, it has been inadequately addressed. This issue of identification of the problems at the ground level can be mainly attributed to the fact that the stakeholders, who are primarily in touch with the CSR agenda, represent a very minimal proportion of the actual working population, and also the stakeholders are primarily bothered about their own self-interests. The policy of Stakeholder Activism initiated by certain States is a welcome move in this regard, and this could go a long way in ensuring the representation of the larger mass of population in the mainstream CSR agenda.

Thus it is inferred that the failure of CSR agenda in the developing countries is a mainly a structural inadequacy rather than any practical or procedural aberration. However, regarding CSR in the context of developing countries, the explanatory power of organizational legitimacy goes beyond its customary tradition. The institutional array of organizational legitimacy proves as a useful body of theory to inform CSR in a developing country context, since it is able to address cultural factors and goes beyond business case considerations. Therefore, the CSR initiatives being seen through the organizational legitimacy theory can effectively solve the problem of non-implementation of the CSR policies in the developing world.

It is pertinent to observe at this juncture, that ‘State Activism’ is urgently required to mobilize the dormant effect of the CSR policies, in the developing countries. The State needs to frame regulations and policies, in their municipal laws so that CSR initiatives could reach to the people at large, rather than being confined to the minor stakeholders. The ineffective realization of the CSR policies is mainly a structural aberration, which needs to be solved by taking into consideration the issues and problems at the ground level.

The phenomenal stretch of Globalization has touched and affected, positively or negatively as well, practically every aspect of human existence, through its varying tentacles in its ever-propagating areas of influence. The recognition and acceptance of the phenomena of Corporate Social Responsibility (hereinafter referred to as CSR), in developed as well as developing countries, is a doting example of the same. It needs a special mention that CSR is nowhere a legally sanctioned document or observance, but it indeed, has come forth as a minimal standard as to the governance of business at global level, with international reference standards set by the United Nations, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines and International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions.

The primary reason as to why this phenomena is rising at such a fast pace, is the global competitiveness ensuing between the business houses of different countries. The corporates mainly demonstrate the extra responsibility to earn the goodwill of the market, and CSR helps in building loyalty and trust amongst shareholders, employees and customers. In this sense CSR denotes a voluntary endeavour by the big business houses to look into the varied issues and concerns of the public at large, apart from the profit-maximising objectives.

CSR is closely linked with the principle of sustainable development, which argues that enterprises should make decisions based not only on financial factors such as profits or dividends but also based on immediate and long term social and environmental consequences of its activities. CSR has a significant role in controlling the perils of uncontrolled development, satisfying the needs of the present generation and at the same time ensuring that the resources of future generations is not jeopardized. [1] The inclusion of the objective of ‘sustainable development’ within the CSR agenda magnifies the duties and responsibilities of the big business houses, upto a large extent, which cannot be made limited as per any parameters. The realization of the ultimate objective of sustainable development is a long and continuous process, and is rather more inclusive, which includes the interest of the developing nations also.

The impact of CSR in context of developing nations, as evident, is rather a negative impact. The primary reason as identified by the authors seems to be the inappropriate approach towards the practical applicability of the CSR in the developing countries. There is lacunae in the structural approach towards implementation of the CSR agenda within the developing countries, mainly due to the irresponsible inactiveness on the part of the government of the developing countries, in framing its policies and regulations as per the international norms and requirements, as CSR is largely a global phenomena.

In this research paper, a structural and conceptual analysis is done with regard to the difficulties faced by the developing countries in implementing the CSR initiatives. This paper is an attempt to identify such issues which attributes to the failure of CSR in developing nations, and also identify the correct possible approaches to properly reap up the benefits of the CSR agenda and initiatives evolved mainly through the internationalization of the initiatives taken in the developed countries, by various approaches to be discussed herein.

EVOLUTION OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS A FULCRUM OF SOCIAL RESPONSIVENESS

What exactly is inferred from the social responsibility of the corporations? The corporations are generally expected to strengthen and mobilize the economy by enhancing profit, the social implications of which are highly overlooked. The concept of CSR refers to the general belief held by many that modern businesses have a responsibility to society that extends beyond the stock holders or investors in the firm. That responsibility, of course, is to make money or profits for the owners. [2] In 1960, Keith Davis suggested that social responsibility refers to businesses’ “decisions and actions taken for reasons at least partially beyond the firm’s direct economic or technical interest.” Also it has been argued by Eells and Walton (1961) that CSR refers to the “problems that arise when corporate enterprise casts its shadow on the social scene, and the ethical principles that ought to govern the relationship between corporation and society. [3] 

The current wave of interest in CSR dates from the early 1990s. [4] However, in recent years the CSR has emerged as an inclusive and global concept to embrace corporate social responsiveness, and the entire spectrum of socially beneficial activities of businesses. It follows the trend of a diffusion process of policy instruments from North to South and therefore of a global convergence of policy structures. [5] 

Now the term ‘social’ within the CSR is again a vague concept and enlarges the sphere of the corporate responsiveness. The social dimension of the CSR can effectively be attributed to the organizations’ stakeholders, who are in the immediate connect to the corporation. Stakeholders denote the group of persons who have a stake, a claim, or an interest in the operations and decisions of the corporation. This bond of the corporation with the stake-holders practically denotes the area of social operation of the corporations. The

The idea of CSR cannot be traced as to the place of its origin and evolution, since it is mainly a progeny of the globalization, which is encumbrancing in itself, the world at large. Therefore, the concept of stake-holder management becomes an effective instrument to analyse the social impact of the corporations. This methodology can have, or rather it has appeared to be an aberration, which practically excludes the impact on the developing nations, as it is a very common fact that the activity of the stake-holders of the developing nations cannot match upto that of the developed ones.

One tangible result that has certainly been achieved by the current CSR”movement” is that it “has got people talking about worker rights, global governance, sustainable enterprise and all manner of topics that have relevance to the well-being of the poor and marginalized”. [6] 

The effective implementation of CSR in developing countries has come forth to be recognized as a challenge after the vision in the year 2000 was instilled in the Milleneum Development Goals (MDGs) as ‘a world with less poverty, hunger and disease, greater survival prospects for mothers and their infants, better educated children, equal opportunities for women, and a healthier environment’.

CSR AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: IDENTIFYING THE CONNECTION

The CSR in connection with developing countries can be considered as ‘to represent ‘the formal and informal ways in which business makes a contribution to improving the governance, social, ethical, labour and environmental conditions of the developing countries in which they operate, while remaining sensitive to prevailing religious, historical and cultural contexts’. [7] The analysis of the effectiveness of the CSR cannot be considered to be complete unless its impact on the developing countries is identified, as they represent the most rapidly expanding economies, providing for a lucrative market for the growth of the corporate business. It is a common fact that the world’s poor are distressingly plentiful, and despite of the vastness of their market, they are largely unexplored by the multinational companies, in assumption that the people of the developing countries are more busy in sustaining their normal living rather than going for any developmental incentives. Also it is assumed that various barriers to commerce – corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, currency fluctuations, bureaucratic red tape etc, make it impossible to do business profitable in these regions.

The authors assert this fact that the above notions and assumptions are largely outdated. It is well-evident in the current scenario that the large number of corporate houses prefer the markets in the developing countries only, as it provides them with ample oppurtunities to maximize the profitability, and the restrictions assumed are hardly existent. Moreover, certain positive trends in developing countries – from political reform, to a growing openness to investment, to the development of low-cost wireless communication networks – are reducing the barriers further while also providing businesses with greater access to even the poorest city slums and rural areas. [8] 

Since in developing countries, rural areas represents more than half of the population, for instance in India, 60% of GDP is generated in rural areas. The critical barrier to doing business in rural regions is distribution access, not a lack of buying power, but new information technology and communications infrastructures – especially wireless – promise to become an inexpensive way to establish marketing and distribution channels in these communities. [9] 

CURRENT STATE OF CSR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

It is argued that the practice of CSR is a work in progress. The idea of evolution of CSR as a concept clearly envisages the fact that it has mainly evolved through an active participation of the developed world, and then it got internationalized, and ultimately it is in a process of reaching to the developing ones also. In the present scenario, no matter what kind of effect it is producing, but it is propagating at a very fast pace, in the developing countries due to the ample market available therein. It has been seen that the developing countries also opened up their economy and whole-heatedly welcomed the advent of foreign companies into their territory as a part of their liberalization strategies. It has been quite beneficial for the foreign investors as well, since the developing countries enrich them with huge profitable market. With increased emphasis on the profit-making, the CSR development agenda has definitely taken a backseat in the developing countries. In his analysis of the relationship between companies and poorer local communities, Newell concluded that “mainstream CSR approaches assume a set of conditions that do not exist in most of the world. CSR can work, for some people, in some places, on some issues, some of the time” [10] . And in the process, the CSR looses the connect with the real life situations of the developing world.

Following are the bases on which the CSR is rendered ineffective in context of developing countries:

The Stakeholder Concept

It has been observed that, in the present time, it benefits some people and some companies in some situations. The success of CSR initiatives can be linked to the stakeholder dialogue and stakeholder engagement, who can bring together representatives of business, non-governmental and public sectors in order to identify and address aspects of social responsibility. However, in context of developing countries, this stakeholder dialogue cannot be effectively realized due to various unwanted barriers such as language, culture, education and pluralistic values, which adversely affects the negotiations and decision-making.

Moreover, one more obstacle that hampers the positive advantage of CSR in developing countries is the prioritization of the interest. As the stake-holders represents the common will of the civil society, but it depends upon their priorities and interest, the success of the CSR, for instance, those groups whose issues and problems are not taken up by the civil society organizations may also be ignored by firms. Notwithstanding the role of organized labour, the unorganized sector can rarely present a threat to a firm’s productivity, nor is the firm’s dependence on them likely to be high. Elaine Sternberg alleges that stakeholding is unworkable and destroys accountability within a firm, as the stakeholders are usually seen as all those who affect or are affected by a corporation. [11] This shows that the CSR for the unorganized sector, which represents a significant proportion of the population in developing countries (more than 50% in India) is highly neglected.

The CSR business case

It is a common practice that the companies are generally meant for their profit-maximising attributes based on the competitive advantage, and to maintain corporate reputation, the beneficial impact on staff morale, etc, and thereby the lessening the involvement of theirs in developing countries. The business case is simply the arguments and rationales as to why business people believe these concepts bring distinct benefits or advantages to companies, specifically, and the business community, generally. One of the possible explanation to the business case of the corporate is given by Simon Zadek, who says that the corporate follow the defensive approach, i.e., companies should pursue CSR to avoid the pressures that create costs for them. [12] The second approach identified by Zadek is the cost-benefit approach, which holds that firm will undertake those activities that yield a greater benefit than cost. The third approach can be that the firms will recognize the changing environment and engage in CSR as a part of a deliberate corporate strategy. As a consequence, CSR is commonly focused on add-on measures and technical solutions, to a certain extent neglecting the contextual environment or even the intended beneficiaries that are addressed by the CSR measures. In this sense, the big business-hubs only act so as to maintain their healthy reputation, and thereby neglecting their social responsibilities, and even if they pursue their social responsibilities, the interest of the developing countries is even not represented there, as the issues are normally evolved in the developed world, which are quite different to that of the developing world.

The inappropriate CSR agenda

Though CSR has evolved as an umbrella concept, but still there many issues which are left unaddressed under the ambit of CSR, and which renders the effective applicability of CSR in developing countries, a potentially difficult task to achieve. The CSR agenda are mainly framed in developed countries, and hence they could not identify the practical situations faced by the developing world, like tax avoidance and transfer-pricing problems, the resource curse effects of the influx of the foreign aid or revenues, etc. This problem is ever-propagating since there is inactiveness on the part of the developing countries, mainly represented through the very few stakeholders, who do not at all represents the actual situation. The appropriateness of the CSR agenda can be ascertained once the representation of the developing countries is adequately ensured while framing the agenda, so that a more inclusive approach can be taken into consideration, including the varied concerns of the developing countries, ab initio.

POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO EFFECTIVELY IMPLEMENT THE CSR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

So far, the concept of CSR has mainly evolved through the concerns and interest of the investors, companies, campaign groups and consumers based in the developed countries. As a result of this, the CSR agenda with regard to the developing countries is very difficult to realize. It has been observed that the impact of CSR in context of the developing countries is rather negative, due to various conceptual as well as structural inadequacies. However, as observed, the developing countries are a potential hub for the growth of CSR accordingly to achieve its ultimate cherished goal of sustainable development. Although the CSR is a global phenomena, its implications can very well be sensed at the local boundaries of the individual States as well. Due to various structural differences within the developing countries, the ‘State Activism’ needs to be enhanced to properly harvest the ripe benefits of the CSR initiatives. The States need to mould the national policies so as to recognize the concerns of the stakeholders of the developed countries. The following initiatives could go a long way for procuring the positive outcome of the CSR in developing Countries:

Free acces to market

As it is well-known that the markets in the developing countries provides for a potential market and the CSR mainly acts through the stake-holders, the CSR objectives can be effectively realized by making possible maximum number of participation from the consumers, so that minute interest of the consumers which are often neglected being unidentified, can be given due consideration. The market policies of the States should be so formulated, as to promote extended participation from the consumers. This becomes especially relevant as more and more companies from developing countries are globalizing and needing to comply with international stock market listing requirements, including various forms of sustainability performance reporting and CSR code compliance.

Socio-Political Reforms

The Government of the developing countries should induce political reforms so that the problems and issues at the ground level can be identified, and then only the CSR initiatives could be effectively realized forthwith. For example, De Oliveira (2006) argues that the political and associated social and economic changes in Latin America since the 1980s, including democratization, liberalization, and privatization, have shifted the role of business towards taking greater responsibility for social and environmental issues. [13] 

Enhancing the investment incentives

It is a common assumption that there is not much scope for investment in the poorer countries as they are largely occupied by the fulfilling of their basic requirements. There comes the responsibility of the concerned Government to frame policies so as to promote ‘socially responsible investment’ (SRI), so that the corporate houses could be attracted to invest in the developing countries. For instance, In some developing countries, like South Africa, the SRI trend is well documented (AICC, 2002). In addition to featuring prominently in the SRI movement in the 1980s through the anti-apartheid disinvestment phenomenon, since 1992, South Africa has introduced more than 20 SRI funds nationally which track companies’

social, ethical, and environmental performance (Visser, 2005a).

Propagating Stakeholder Activism

As discusses earlier, that the CSR mainly works with respect to the stakeholders, who have certain pecuniary interest in the whereabouts of the business house, and they represent a very segregated part of the actual mass of population, and hence, the interest of the large part of the developing world could not be identified. The stakeholders are generally confined in the furtherance of their own petty interest, and therefore, it becomes impossible for the Corporate to identify the interests of the consumers at large. And hence, the onus shifts on the concerned government to intiate such policies to enhance stakeholder activism. In the developing world, the stakeholders agencies such as NGOs, Trade Unions, International Business Associations could be mobilized to ensure their participation in CSR activities, as they represent the class of stakeholders who mainly work at the primary level and are well aware of the existing issues and circumstances. Newell identifies the Stakeholder Activism in developing countries as civil regulation, litigation against companies, which go a long way in procuring the interest of the developing world. There are numerous examples of civil regulation in action in the developing world of which South Africa is a rather striking case in point. This has manifested itself mainly through community groups challenging companies over whether they are upholding the constitutional rights of citizens. Various landmark cases between 1994 and 2004 suggest that, although civil society still tends

to lack capacity and resources in South Africa, this has been an effective strategy. Stakeholder activism has also taken a constructive approach towards encouraging CSR, through groups like the National Business Initiative and partnerships between business and NGOs. [14] 

The theory of ‘Organizational Legitimacy’ as a possible solution the implementation of CSR in developing Countries

This theory of ‘Organizational Legitimacy’ can have various dimensions, but through a strategic view-point, the focus rests on the organization and assumes a relatively high degree of managerial control over the legitimating process. In the institutionalist tradition, a broader perspective is taken (“society looking in”), focusing on how organisations or groups of organisations adapt to their institutional environments in order to manage legitimacy. Here, legitimacy is not seen as an operational resource, but rather as a set of external constraints, forming the actions of the organization. [15] Therefore, this theory of organizational legitimacy imposes upon the business houses, a certain kind of ethical constraints, to be complied with, for effective implementation of the CSR agenda. Suchman defined Legitimacy “as a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs, and definitions”. This definition denotes the principle of moral legitimacy which the organizations follow to appear consistent with one’s external expectations in order to be able to continue business as usual. This theory need not be made universally applicable as in the judgment whether an organization and its actions are legitimate or not, is rather socially construed, and therefore subject to change depending upon the socio-political environment, the organization is established into.

CONCLUSION

In view of the above discussion, it is well-evident that the CSR has not been able to properly stretch its tentacles in the developing world, due to various conceptual and structural obstacles. The reason could be primarily attributed to the fact that mostly the issues are not recognized and thus have not come forth within the ambit of the CSR agenda, due to the shortcomings in the policies of the developing countries.

It is pertinent to observe the conceptual aspects of the CSR beyond the customary approaches being carried thereon. It cannot be necessarily assumed that CSR is ineffective in context of developing countries, rather there is problem with the identification and acknowledgement, of the issues which needs to be addressed. If the CSR standards with respect to the worker’s right and natural resource management are looked into, it is observed that for people in developing countries, it has been inadequately addressed. This issue of identification of the problems at the ground level can be mainly attributed to the fact that the stakeholders, who are primarily in touch with the CSR agenda, represent a very minimal proportion of the actual working population, and also the stakeholders are primarily bothered about their own self-interests. The policy of Stakeholder Activism initiated by certain States is a welcome move in this regard, and this could go a long way in ensuring the representation of the larger mass of population in the mainstream CSR agenda.

Thus it is inferred that the failure of CSR agenda in the developing countries is a mainly a structural inadequacy rather than any practical or procedural aberration. However, regarding CSR in the context of developing countries, the explanatory power of organizational legitimacy goes beyond its customary tradition. The institutional array of organizational legitimacy proves as a useful body of theory to inform CSR in a developing country context, since it is able to address cultural factors and goes beyond business case considerations. Therefore, the CSR initiatives being seen through the organizational legitimacy theory can effectively solve the problem of non-implementation of the CSR policies in the developing world.

It is pertinent to observe at this juncture, that ‘State Activism’ is urgently required to mobilize the dormant effect of the CSR policies, in the developing countries. The State needs to frame regulations and policies, in their municipal laws so that CSR initiatives could reach to the people at large, rather than being confined to the minor stakeholders. The ineffective realization of the CSR policies is mainly a structural aberration, which needs to be solved by taking into consideration the issues and problems at the ground level.

The Impact Of Gender On Suicide Sociology Essay

The majority of people instinctively know what the word means; it is the act of an individual taking their life. But, what is understood about the role gender plays in suicide. “Male suicides outnumber female suicides in all countries except select parts of China” (Hadad, pp. 133). It appears to be a contradiction when scrutinized. To most people it would seem like women would be more likely than men to commit suicide. Masculinity is built on the notion of strength, aggression, and independence while femininity is considered nurturing and expressive with the inhibition of anger. Because of the impact of gender roles in society, males have a greater difficulty reaching out for help. Traditionally, the socialization of females has encouraged passivity, dependency, and submissiveness. Of these traits, two may positively affect women’s attitude towards suicide. The first is emotional expressiveness. Because females are free to express their needs more openly than males, females can and do seek help more often than males do. For example, women are more likely to seek help from and disclose mental health problems to their primary health care physician than men (WHO, 2010). The trait of emotional expressiveness may help to explain why women more often than men express sympathy toward suicidal figures. It may also have implications for the treatment of suicidal women in that they may seek help more often than men and at an earlier stage in the development of suicidal ideation. Also, women may give themselves permission to plan less fatal suicide attempts than men do, using such attempts as another more serious form of expressing their need. Females may simple be more willing than males to reach out and nurture those who are considering suicidal behavior. The desire to nurture may also enable females to be more open than men to inform others about suicide and more willing to talk with those considering suicide. Socialization toward passivity, conversely, may block troubled traditional females from exploring healthy coping skills in an active manner. Similarly, because of their socialization toward dependency, traditional females may not be able to find independent solutions, storing up their frustration and anger as they passively wait for change that does not come. The socialization of females to inhibit their anger makes positive coping with frustrating life circumstances difficult if not impossible. One alternative to expressing anger is to turn inward, courting depression and its outward manifestation, suicidal behavior. There is ample evidence that women admit being depressed more often than men do (Fujita, Diener, Sandvik, 1991). Perhaps women experiencing irresolvable anger become susceptible to depression, which in extreme cases may lead to suicidal behavior. Turning to male socialization, there are problems of a different type. Males, compared to females, show higher levels of activity and aggression very early in childhood and these differences persist until at least middle age. Moreover, traditional socialization of males builds upon these existing tendencies toward higher activity levels and aggression. The instruction given to a small boy diverts them from anything thought to be feminine, encourages them to inhibit their emotions; and demands that they become independent as soon as possible. As males develop structures of schemas for masculine behavior, they begin to structure their future interactions in the world in such a way as to maintain those perceptions. Males find their tendencies toward activity and higher aggression sharpened by their cognitive understanding and acceptance of the emphasis on competition and success inherent in traditional male socialization. Especially in North American culture, boys are socialized into competitive games at an early age and often learn to endure physical punishment and pain as part of “having fun” or learning to be a man. In short, male socialization encourages emotional inexpressiveness and denial of feelings of pain and suffering. It also gives permission to be more aggressive and violent and to reach for success or winning at any cost. Males as also socialized to look at life pragmatically, to be problem solvers. Research on attitudes towards suicide tends to support the proposition that males, more often than females, may see suicide as an acceptable solution to problems inherent in living (DeRose, Page, 1985). Males and females differ greatly in their suicidal behavior. They have dramatically different suicide attempt and completion rates, attitudes, and propensities to seek help in a crisis that are deeply embedded in gender related socialization practices. Females seem to know more factual information about suicide than males do. Females may thus be in a better position than males to recognize when friends or acquaintances are considering engaging in suicidal behavior. Females seem more willing to discuss the subject of suicide with suicidal people. This suggests that females are more likely than males to be effective both in crisis intervention and in peer counseling programs. Perhaps females more than males have a general perceptual set to value life. Such a set would have survival value since it is the female who must experience childbirth in order to give life to the next generation and who generally must play the major role in nurturing that life, at least in the early months and years. Therefore, females may have a keener appreciation for life and for the waste that death by suicide engenders. Females have a greater understanding of the enormity of potential lost because of suicidal deaths. Males, conversely, may view death by suicide, especially the death of those who are old or terminally ill, as a representing decisive action in the face of unchangeable fate. Therefore, rather than focusing on the waste involved in suicide, males may see it as a final problem-solving solution. Males seem to accept suicide as an alternative in otherwise insoluble situations but they view other males who attempt suicide with less sympathy and empathy than they view the same troubled males who do not attempt suicide. Attempted suicide, in general, appears to be viewed as weakness while completed suicide is viewed with strength. One of the most important pieces of information I learned from this essay were the differences in attitudes towards suicidal behavior in men and women and the way people view attempted and completely suicide. If attempted suicide is views as weaker and less masculine, males would be more likely to structure any suicide attempt in such a way as to reduce the likelihood of surviving, while females would feel fewer stigmas from surviving an attempt and might, therefore, be more likely to engage in less lethal suicidal actions. It is interesting that sex differences in suicidal behavior are consistent. Females do attempt suicide more frequently than males, while males succeed in killing themselves more frequently than females. With findings such as these it is unsettling to consider that the majority of suicide prevention and treatment is tailor towards emotional evaluation, reporting, and observation when the masculine gender role inhibits any of these tendencies. Males are less likely to exhibit any warning signs or talking about suicidal ideation. Men do not have the benefit of having a suicide attempt be observed as a need for treatment because they are more likely to succeed in their attempt.

The majority of people instinctively know what the word means; it is the act of an individual taking their life. But, what is understood about the role gender plays in suicide. “Male suicides outnumber female suicides in all countries except select parts of China” (Hadad, pp. 133). It appears to be a contradiction when scrutinized. To most people it would seem like women would be more likely than men to commit suicide. Masculinity is built on the notion of strength, aggression, and independence while femininity is considered nurturing and expressive with the inhibition of anger. Because of the impact of gender roles in society, males have a greater difficulty reaching out for help. Traditionally, the socialization of females has encouraged passivity, dependency, and submissiveness. Of these traits, two may positively affect women’s attitude towards suicide. The first is emotional expressiveness. Because females are free to express their needs more openly than males, females can and do seek help more often than males do. For example, women are more likely to seek help from and disclose mental health problems to their primary health care physician than men (WHO, 2010). The trait of emotional expressiveness may help to explain why women more often than men express sympathy toward suicidal figures. It may also have implications for the treatment of suicidal women in that they may seek help more often than men and at an earlier stage in the development of suicidal ideation. Also, women may give themselves permission to plan less fatal suicide attempts than men do, using such attempts as another more serious form of expressing their need. Females may simple be more willing than males to reach out and nurture those who are considering suicidal behavior. The desire to nurture may also enable females to be more open than men to inform others about suicide and more willing to talk with those considering suicide. Socialization toward passivity, conversely, may block troubled traditional females from exploring healthy coping skills in an active manner. Similarly, because of their socialization toward dependency, traditional females may not be able to find independent solutions, storing up their frustration and anger as they passively wait for change that does not come. The socialization of females to inhibit their anger makes positive coping with frustrating life circumstances difficult if not impossible. One alternative to expressing anger is to turn inward, courting depression and its outward manifestation, suicidal behavior. There is ample evidence that women admit being depressed more often than men do (Fujita, Diener, Sandvik, 1991). Perhaps women experiencing irresolvable anger become susceptible to depression, which in extreme cases may lead to suicidal behavior. Turning to male socialization, there are problems of a different type. Males, compared to females, show higher levels of activity and aggression very early in childhood and these differences persist until at least middle age. Moreover, traditional socialization of males builds upon these existing tendencies toward higher activity levels and aggression. The instruction given to a small boy diverts them from anything thought to be feminine, encourages them to inhibit their emotions; and demands that they become independent as soon as possible. As males develop structures of schemas for masculine behavior, they begin to structure their future interactions in the world in such a way as to maintain those perceptions. Males find their tendencies toward activity and higher aggression sharpened by their cognitive understanding and acceptance of the emphasis on competition and success inherent in traditional male socialization. Especially in North American culture, boys are socialized into competitive games at an early age and often learn to endure physical punishment and pain as part of “having fun” or learning to be a man. In short, male socialization encourages emotional inexpressiveness and denial of feelings of pain and suffering. It also gives permission to be more aggressive and violent and to reach for success or winning at any cost. Males as also socialized to look at life pragmatically, to be problem solvers. Research on attitudes towards suicide tends to support the proposition that males, more often than females, may see suicide as an acceptable solution to problems inherent in living (DeRose, Page, 1985). Males and females differ greatly in their suicidal behavior. They have dramatically different suicide attempt and completion rates, attitudes, and propensities to seek help in a crisis that are deeply embedded in gender related socialization practices. Females seem to know more factual information about suicide than males do. Females may thus be in a better position than males to recognize when friends or acquaintances are considering engaging in suicidal behavior. Females seem more willing to discuss the subject of suicide with suicidal people. This suggests that females are more likely than males to be effective both in crisis intervention and in peer counseling programs. Perhaps females more than males have a general perceptual set to value life. Such a set would have survival value since it is the female who must experience childbirth in order to give life to the next generation and who generally must play the major role in nurturing that life, at least in the early months and years. Therefore, females may have a keener appreciation for life and for the waste that death by suicide engenders. Females have a greater understanding of the enormity of potential lost because of suicidal deaths. Males, conversely, may view death by suicide, especially the death of those who are old or terminally ill, as a representing decisive action in the face of unchangeable fate. Therefore, rather than focusing on the waste involved in suicide, males may see it as a final problem-solving solution. Males seem to accept suicide as an alternative in otherwise insoluble situations but they view other males who attempt suicide with less sympathy and empathy than they view the same troubled males who do not attempt suicide. Attempted suicide, in general, appears to be viewed as weakness while completed suicide is viewed with strength. One of the most important pieces of information I learned from this essay were the differences in attitudes towards suicidal behavior in men and women and the way people view attempted and completely suicide. If attempted suicide is views as weaker and less masculine, males would be more likely to structure any suicide attempt in such a way as to reduce the likelihood of surviving, while females would feel fewer stigmas from surviving an attempt and might, therefore, be more likely to engage in less lethal suicidal actions. It is interesting that sex differences in suicidal behavior are consistent. Females do attempt suicide more frequently than males, while males succeed in killing themselves more frequently than females. With findings such as these it is unsettling to consider that the majority of suicide prevention and treatment is tailor towards emotional evaluation, reporting, and observation when the masculine gender role inhibits any of these tendencies. Males are less likely to exhibit any warning signs or talking about suicidal ideation. Men do not have the benefit of having a suicide attempt be observed as a need for treatment because they are more likely to succeed in their attempt.

Women In India Gender Sensitization Sociology Essay

19th January 2013 a Talk-show is going on in Dr.Bansi Dhar Sr.Sec.School campus. Its an open conversation session between students and dignitaries belonging to various fields, a Writer, an RAS Officer, an Advocate and a Film Maker. A student of class VI stands up and puts up a question “When will the time come, when girls are going to move about freely and safely in evenings?” The question haunted me whole day. Eleven years old kid has presented a picture of India through her small question that gender inequality still persists in free and democratic India leave apart the gender sensitization.

Gender Sensitization to me, simply means feeling of empathy for opposite sex. Gender and sex too, have a thin line of demarcation between them. When we talk simply about the biological difference between a male and a female, we are talking in terms of sex but when we talk with reference to the social, cultural and economic status of both, we talk in terms of gender.

Women in India still suffer from Gender inequality because of the lack of gender sensitization on part of males. Many of us blame that degradation of values and ethics amongst the youth is the root cause of such problems. These problems are directly or indirectly related to the lack of gender sensitivity be it the case of eve-teasing, domestic violence or the case of brutal rape. The blunt truth is whatever has percolated in young minds has finally been given to them by their socio-cultural environment which mainly includes their family, school and peers. A major part of the responsibility for developing gender sensitization rests on the shoulders of family members and educators. They are the one who can kindle the feeling of gender equality in young girls and boys and develop the empathy for each other. I strongly believe in what David O’Mckay quotes “Women are created from the rib of man to be beside him, not from his head to top him, nor from his feet to trampled by him but from under his arm to be protected by him, near to his heart to be loved by him”

It shocks me when a girl child in talk show innocently asks, “Girls are physically weaker than boys, how can they fight against them?” Physical weakness of a female can never lead a male to empower her if he is sensitive enough to realize that within her delicate and physically weak body resides a tender heart which cares for him as a mother, a sister and also as a wife. But this realization comes from how he has learnt to treat a female from his surroundings at home and at school.

At home, he has been observing throughout his life, a mother following the instructions of a dominating father, a sister being scolded for not looking after him properly or not carrying out the household jobs properly in her mother’s absence.

In the present scenario, even females seem to lose their gender sensitivity towards males. Working on many fronts at the same time, getting no care and appreciation in return, frustrated from earning no respect in family and society, their outburst comes in the form of separations, broken families or as live-in relationships searching for complete freedom for oneself.

There is an urgent need to develop a family atmosphere where all members of the family enjoy an equal status, are equally respected and taken care of irrespective of their gender and are treated with empathy. As Gloria Stienem says, “We’ve begun to raise daughter more like sons, but few have the courage to raise our sons more like daughters.”

CBSE serves as an excellent forum for the society to develop Gender Sensitivity amongst pupil by its philosophy of co-educational school where girls and boys grow up together in a friendly manner, feeling each other’s biological and emotional changes while passing through the age of adolescence. They learn to respect each other’s feelings and understand their psychological needs.

Adolescent Education programs of CBSE, inclusion of Life-skills in curriculum, evaluation of students in co-scholastic areas on the basis of attitudes and values are some of the significant measures taken up by CBSE which are going to serve as important factors in evolution of Gender Sensitivity in Indian Social Environment.

Some major changes are to be made at school front too. We as Educators can make a difference by developing an atmosphere in the school, where a child naturally absorbs values and ethics as he/she grows up from a kindergarten kid to a senior secondary youngster. This would not only make the students duty conscious but also protective and caring towards others. Boys should learn through their school environment, that they are not made to empower any of their girl classmate make her realize that she is physically weaker than boy but to be their saviours and protectors in any unsafe situation. Girls should also be trained to be equally caring for their male classmates without losing their self-esteem.

In present scenario school curriculum should focus on empowerment of girl education by creating awareness amongst girls regarding psychological and physical changes of adolescence. They should be educated regarding domestic violence and sexual abuse so that they could face these challenges and share them with their parents and elders. This empowering education in the schools would reduce the creation of masculine norms in boys, to set themselves as different in nature from girls to engage in ‘sexual conquests’. This is the need of hour to give education which could create awareness in students regarding our social and moral issues.

Nicholas D.Kristof says – “In the 19th Century, the central moral challenge was slavery. In 20th century it was battle against totalitarianism. We believe that this century the paramount of moral challenge will be the struggle for gender equality around the world”. If his prediction comes true the day is not far when the little girl child of my school will find an appropriate answer to her question that how will girls fight with boys being physically weaker to them and would see my imagination of a gender sensitive India taking its shape gradually but surely.

It’s all about Humanity,

Living together in tranquillity

Where no one is powerless or powerful

Submissive or Aggressive

Then it’s a land of beauty

Where women gets an equal dignity

(52)

Gender Sensitization in School

Mousumi Bhaduri

English Teacher

Texmaco D.P.S. International School

Indonesia

The heinous crime that was committed on December 16th,2012 at Delhi has been a rude eye-opener to the gender inequality that still exists in Indian society. On the one hand we have women occupying prominent positions in society and in many professional areas earlier considered as exclusively male domains ,on the other hand even in the capital city cases of violence against women are still rampant. One cannot help but wonder at this strange paradoxical situation!

The title of this article is Gender Sensitization in school. At the very outset one may be tempted to ask some pertinent questions.What is the need for gender sensitization in today’s era? Can anyone deny the importance of boys and girls? The answer is obviously ‘No’.Are boys and girls considered equally important in remote areas or even in urban society? The answer to the last question is ‘Certainly not!’ According to me, society has a hypocritical attitude towards girls. We still hear cases of female foeticide and sex determination tests in rural and urban areas respectively.In affluent and educated classes even today such discrimination exists albeit in a milder form.If the daughter is given the opportunity to pursue higher studies in India, the son is inspired to obtain a degree from abroad. Why this discrimination between boys and girls?

Next to God we are indebted to women, first for the life itself, and then for making it worth living. -Bovee

School is a miniature society. We find children of different socio-economic groups in school. Socialization with the outside world begins at school. Children spend their formative period at school. In fact school is the best place where children can be taught not to differentiate between genders.Such children by the time they become adults,they will have instilled in their minds positive and non-differential attitude or treatment towards the other gender. As mature and balanced adults they will propagate the ideas of gender equality in society and to the future generation.The attitude of mutual respect between genders will then be consolidated; we can then hope for a more civilized society-in the real sense of the term. (Can we call a society ‘civilized’ where barbaric incidents like what happened to ‘Damini’ occurs frequently?)

If you educate a man you educate a person, but if you educate a woman you educate a family. -Ruby Manikan

Schools can take several measures to sensitize gender (equality) such as those given below:

Schools should employ staff who believe in and practise gender equality.

Schools should follow curriculum which is pro-girl child.

Moral Science education should be introduced as a regular subject at all levels and students should be examined in it like other graded subjects.

Female students should be encouraged to participate in activities which are similar to the activities in which the male students participate.

The course material should have the underlying theme of mutual respect between girls and boys and the same should be conveyed through the lessons.

Interactive sessions in the form of group discussions, debates and plays between boy and girl students should be conducted on the theme of gender equality under the supervision of teachers.

The school should fulfil its duty towards society by counselling parents and also other members of society to develop a healthy and positive attitude towards the female child (while not disregarding the male child).

Schools can felicitate female students publicly or during school assemblies for their extraordinary achievement in curricular and co-curricular areas. This would help girls to overcome the feelings of inferiority and help them to be confident.

Biographies and autobiographies of famous women should be included in the curriculum in order to inspire the female students to build their lives and career on similar lines.

Schools should encourage girls to be aware of their rights and duties, instill a sense of confidence in them,inspire them to be financially independent and impart training to them in self-defence.

Schools can definitely play a vital role to bring about a transformation in the mindset of the people towards the girl child and promote gender equality.A country can be called truly developed only if each male citizen treats each female citizen with respect,regard and equity. No other development is as important and crucial as the development of human values in society.It is time we all pondered over it.

(53)

Sensitivity of Gender

Jeevan Jyothi Public school

Thalikod, Pattikkad, P.O.

Thrissur

Gender equality is more than a goal in itself. It is a precondition for meeting the challenge of reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development and building good governance.

Sensing that the ordinance prescribing harsher punishment for offenders is not enough to prevent crime against women the government on Monday unveiled 27 measures. It also issued instructions to initiate strict action against police personal found to be either displaying bias against women or neglecting their supervisory responsibilities while registering complaints of sexual offences.

One of the tests prescribed by our ancient law givers for judging the crime situation is that the situation is fine if a young, beautiful girl laden with gold ornaments can walk at night on the streets without fear of getting robbed or molested. By this test the crime situation in the country and particularly in Delhi, is very disturbing.

The brutal gang rape of a young girl in a Delhi bus resulting in death has ignited widespread public anger and outrange throughout the country. There has been severe denunciation of the police for its failure to secure safety security of women. The fact cannot be gainsaid that crimes against women at present get a low priority in police work.

There has been an enormously increase of crimes against women not only in Delhi but also all over the country according to the available statistics. However these statistics are misleading and only reveal tip of the iceberg. A very large number of cases are either not reported to the police, or if reported, not registered.

So gender equality is a must in the society, all the actions and policies by the government and public should be focusing on gender equality.

(54)

Gender Sensitization in Schools

Dr. (Mrs.) Caroline Mathew

Principal,

Nirmala Sr. Sec. School, Port Blair,

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Introduction: Gender is a neutral word that stands for both male and female. Gender illustrates the role of women and men in a society that is determined by many factors that may arise out of social, political, economic and cultural situations and this has nothing to do with biological differences. It is the sensitization of gender in a society that determines the roles of men and women, their responsibilities, opportunities, privileges and expectations.

People are born with biological differences as male and female and then they learn from the society to be boys and girls and men and women. The society, which includes the family they live in, teaches them appropriate behaviour and attitude, roles and activities, expectations and identity and determines their gender roles. These gender roles differ from society to society. Many social, religious and cultural factors modify and regulate the roles of men and women in communities. Even though gender norms vary according to cultures and communities, it is found that women are subject to the dominant influence of men at every level of society. The inequality of power in gender relations has negative consequences for women in all areas of their lives which at large affects the social and national development.

Need for Gender Sensitization in Schools: The school, classroom and teachers are all part and parcel of a society. In a society people may suffer from various problems such as poverty, gender discrimination, oppression, inequalities, gender biases and various other issues. Children in a school come from such various types of societies and in Indian societies we cannot chip away the reality of male domination. A father is the master of the house, irrespective of the fact that he may not be a bread winner. A male child is always given much freedom than his sister. When children come to school from such backgrounds, there are possibilities that there may be gender discrimination between peer groups or by teachers. Hence there is a need for gender sensitization in schools so that children become aware of their roles in the society as future men and women.

Gender Issues in Schools: All schools face some or other gender issues from time to time that teachers may be confronted with sometime in their career. When young boys and girls study together in a classroom situation, it is quite normal to have some or other gender issues. This does not mean that only co-ed schools face all gender problems. Schools with only boys or only girls may also face various other problems. The problems may arise due to biological or social differences.

Many times it has been observed that boys try to dominate, tease or even look down upon girls as inferiors. It is also true that some girls are very dominating and would not bend down to boys. When there is a class competition between boys and girls, there is literally a row in the class. If the girls in the class are academically better than the boys, the boys try to pacify their ego by teasing or passing comments on the girls. It is not necessary that all the time it is the boys who create the issues; many times girls may also be instrumental for some gender issues in the classroom.

The present day problems also arise due to nuclear or single child families. Earlier when there were joint families, children learnt to live with each other, sharing and caring for others. But today the scenario has changed and these children from nuclear families do not understand the values of sharing or caring. They are self centred and give least importance to others. Such children in a classroom situation are unable to cooperate with others and sometimes there may be gender issues in the class.

Sometimes teacher’s deportment may also lead to gender issues in a classroom. It has been observed that some female teachers are very supportive for boys or some male teachers are very sympathetic towards girls. Sometimes the case may be the other way such as female teachers showering a lot of sympathy towards girls or male teachers being very encouraging towards boys. The teachers’ such conscious or unconscious behaviour affects children and leads to gender problems in a classroom.

Gender Biases in Teaching and Learning Settings: There are many factors that lead to gender biases in a classroom. It may be due to the subject being taught, the teaching learning materials used or teacher-pupil interaction. Sometimes the lesson being taught in the classroom or the examples being used by the teacher may lead to gender biases. Gender biases may also be through the questions asked by the teacher to the girls or boys, the question asked by the girls or boys to the teacher, the recall questions, open ended questions, time allocated to the boys and girls to answer these questions etc. Gender biases may also arise due to the feedbacks of teachers given to boys and girls in the way of positive or negative reinforcements, judgemental statements or sometimes when they just remain neutral, they may promote gender discrimination. At times, the tasks and responsibilities allotted to girls and boys may create gender biases. Boys are usually given responsibilities and work that needs more physical energy while girls are given such responsibilities that may not need much physical energy. The discipline towards boys and girls or the sentence given to boys and girls may also create gender biases. Even the language used by teachers towards students or the language used by students in a classroom may lead to gender biases. Sometimes the utilization of materials and tools by boys and girls in school such as books, computers, calculators etc., may also lead to gender biases.

Role of School in Gender Awareness and Gender Equality: A school is the first society for the students and a school plays a pivotal role in creating gender awareness and gender equality among its students. A student learns the basic lessons for life only in the school. Hence teachers have to play a crucial role in bringing this awareness among the students. First of all it is essential for the teachers to believe in gender equality and they have to put it in practice in the class. The teachers need to be conscious of their behaviour in the classroom while dealing with the boys and girls. They should try to develop a sense of equality and respect in the students for the opposite sex. By providing equal opportunities to both girls and boys and by not discriminating them on the basis of their gender, the teachers can develop mutual respect among the girls and boys for each other. Class activities or competitions in classrooms should be carried out in combined groups and not on the basis of sex. Ample opportunity should be provided to both boys and girls to work together and study together in a congenial atmosphere in a classroom so that they are sensitized about gender equality and they understand the importance of both the sexes in social circumstances. Both boys and girls should be taught to appreciate and respect each other’s strengths and weaknesses.

Conclusion: There was a time when the role of men and women were defined differently in our society as SHE was confined to the hearth and house while HE was for the fields. Today the scenario has totally changed as people are proud of their mothers, wives or daughters who walk hand in hand with men in all walks of life. But it is also true that still there is gender discrimination in some pockets of our societies. Sexual harassment can happen at work places, institutions, in the family or on the streets and the Delhi rape case is a bitter example. If schools play their roles well in gender sensitization, then the evils of gender discrimination can be uprooted from the society and there is no doubt that we should be able to create a society where there would be gender equality in true sense.

(55)

Towards Understanding Gender: Gender Sensitization in Schools

Mrs. K.V.KAMALA SUNDARAM

TGT (ENGLISH)

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA, NO.2

TAMBARAM, CHENNAI-73

The response to the query on gender is inevitable in the innumerable forms and applications that one has to fill from the moment one breathes in into this world and till the time one bids adieu once for all. Do we ever realize the significance of that word whenever we write it? Have we realized the socio-economic, cultural, political and intrinsic value of the term “gender”?

The natural difference is reiterated and underscored through the selection of names, the clothes and the toys for the baby depending on the sex of the baby. Not to be overlooked is the fact that the Gender difference ‘alarm button’ is activated at the fetus stage and female fetus is simply washed down with a blissful nod of the pragmatic and prejudiced people. Thus the “natural difference” has gradually turned into discrimination resulting in inequality and suppression. The prevailing inequality a woman faces from “womb to tomb” is pathetic and goes beyond words.

But a single sad and sadistic event has shaken our conscience and made us wake up to the realities that slap our faces.

The time has come for the (hu)mankind to recode the gender roles, gender attitudes and gender equity and equality. The time has come for the (hu)mankind to reaffirm its faith in values like justice, equality and amicable co-existence in harmony with nature.

Roles and attributes

Gender roles are realities in almost everyone’s life. They determine how males and females should think, speak, dress, and interact within the context of society. The roles conform to the anticipations of the domestic, social, religious and cultural tenets of that period and region. The infants are brought up to conform to their gender-based stereotyped responses and reactions.

The accepted stereotyped roles expect the man to be brave, confident, ready to face the ordeals of life with determination and ease. As the sole breadwinner of the home he commands respect and the natural head of the family. At the same time the woman is expected to be kind, modest, weak, take care of home and children, obedient and patient; man is knowledgeable and skilled and the woman is affectionate and benevolent.

A sketch of a home generally depicts the man reading a newspaper sitting on an armchair and the woman making a garland. The advertisement of an insurance company talks about the plans for daughters’ marriages and sons’ higher studies.

The delineation of gender roles should help the world to co-exist in harmony, play complementary roles and enhance the quality of life. On the contrary what one finds is discrimination against women, oppression and suppression and gender inequality.

Gender equality

Gender equality refers to equal access to social goods, services and resources and equal opportunities in all spheres of life for both men and women. Gender equality should assure equal participation of women and men in decision-making, equal ability to exercise their human rights, equal access to and control of resources and the benefits of development, and equal opportunities in employment and in all other aspects of their livelihoods.

Self-help groups, NGOs, Social Development Groups, various countries and International Organisations including the UN have been striving for women empowerment. Creating a space for women in public life through education and employment, ensuring the safety and dignity of women, glorifying women achievers, giving importance to girls’ education ,legal sanctions against social evils like dowry system and child marriages, celebration of Women’s Day etc. are few of the strategic steps which try to establish the gender equality.

Need of the Hour

The plethora of news reports on violence against women both at home and at public, the growing intolerance and insensitivity to the very existence of this co-being has sent signals of alarm across the globe. The cleansing of this deep malaise requires determined and well-planned strategies. Hence, Gender Sensitization has become the highly prioritized issue of the day.

The different nodes of social transactions & interactions namely, movies, television, music, books, peers, parents and teachers teach and reinforce gender roles throughout the lifespan. Especially, the home and the school should play a responsible role in moulding the young minds towards gender equality and building mutual understanding and dignity between the two genders.

The school holds the key

The students spend their impressionable years at school. A comprehensive school programme which addresses the gender issues will make a positive impact in the young minds. The schools should take care of the concept formation on gender issues, habits and practice which promote and instill confidence in the theories of gender equality.

What can the school do?

Gender sensitization could be realized through

Inclusion of the concepts through Curriculum

Instilling the values through co-curricular activities

Initiating community based activities involving the triangle of parents, teachers and media.

Providing an ambience in the school campus to nurture mutual gender -understanding.

Training the teachers to understand the challenges and planning their activities.

Inclusion of the concepts through Curriculum

Graded concepts based on gender should be introduced through curriculum right from primary education.

The selection of texts and sketches should promote gender equality.

The “in-puts” given in texts need not project stereotyped roles for men and women. For example, look at the two sums given in a primary maths text book: Sum 1: Raman had 200 Rs. in his pocket. He spent 125 Rs. to fill petrol for his bike. How much money will be left with him? Sum 2: Kamala made 27 chappathis. Her children had eaten 13 chappathis. How many are left out? Why not Kamala ride the bike?

Upper Primary classes could have stories where women are protagonists.

Secondary and Senior Secondary sections could have lessons addressing the gender discrimination and class room activities could lead to discussions and debates on gender issues.

Instilling the values through co-curricular activities

Co-curricular activities would make a great impact in the minds of the young minds. Hence, the school and the educationists should explore the possible themes and related activities to promote gender sensitivity and complementing co-existence of men and women.

The themes may include:

mental agony & damage caused by violence against women

unnoticed and unpaid excessive load of work thrust on women

comforts and luxuries proffered to men and denied to women

the yeomen service rendered by women at home

great women achievers and the hardships they faced

need for women empowerment

exploration of opportunities for girls in this modern world

need for equality and pleasant co-existence

The activities may include : slogan writing, Fancy dress competitions, elocution, debate,

essay writing , story writing, poem writing, G Clubs etc.

Initiating community based activities

Children form their opinions looking at the elders. Much depends on adults and the role model that they portray in front of the children. Hence, initiating community based activities involving the triangle of parents, teachers and media.

Parents’ Meetings could be conducted with the themes of:

Needs & Rights of Girls

Issues connected with child abuse and protective measures to be taken

Stereotyping gender roles at home and how it affects attitude

Sensitizing boys at home positively

Media: print and visual media

Media both print and visual media play an important role in forming opinions and spreading messages. Hence, the schools and Education departments should invite and involve the national as well as local media in sensitizing gender based issues. Seminars, workshops and campaigns could be worthy activities.

Training the teachers to understand the challenges and planning their activities:

In their concern for education teachers pay a lot of attention to the performance of students in assessments and guide them on their employability. What goes unnoticed in classroom transactions and teachers’ planning their lessons is the more serious aspect of education – school as the place for social transformation.

Teachers are the most important factor or agent in bringing the social change. First they should change; they should wholeheartedly accept the need to make those changes

This is one of the most urgent actions to be taken up by the HRD and other Institutions of Education like CBSE. It is to be appreciated that our educational system has taken a serious note of the state of affairs and has started taking measures in this direction.

Teachers could pay attention to:

Not passing on notions of the stereotyped gender roles during class room transactions.

The teaching aids and posters in the room ensure gender equity & equality.

Making the boys realise that women empowerment programmes are the need of the hour and victimization should be avoided.

Teacher leaders could participate in panel discussions forums in mass media to emphasis the role to be played by media.

A society of well-groomed children with deep convictions about human rights will never violate them. This can ensure a safe and secure society for our future generations, more particularly for the female gender. We need to usher in a society that is devoid of prejudices, injustices, and maltreatment against a human being, irrespective of his/her gender. We can call ourselves a civilized society only when we reach that stage.

(56)

Gender Sensitization in Schools

Delhi Public School, Jalandhar

[email protected]

“Gender equality is about providing men and women with “equal conditions for realising their full human rights and their potential to contribute to national, political, economic, social and cultural development and to benefit equally from their results.”

This is what the UN Charter states about equal

19th January 2013 a Talk-show is going on in Dr.Bansi Dhar Sr.Sec.School campus. Its an open conversation session between students and dignitaries belonging to various fields, a Writer, an RAS Officer, an Advocate and a Film Maker. A student of class VI stands up and puts up a question “When will the time come, when girls are going to move about freely and safely in evenings?” The question haunted me whole day. Eleven years old kid has presented a picture of India through her small question that gender inequality still persists in free and democratic India leave apart the gender sensitization.

Gender Sensitization to me, simply means feeling of empathy for opposite sex. Gender and sex too, have a thin line of demarcation between them. When we talk simply about the biological difference between a male and a female, we are talking in terms of sex but when we talk with reference to the social, cultural and economic status of both, we talk in terms of gender.

Women in India still suffer from Gender inequality because of the lack of gender sensitization on part of males. Many of us blame that degradation of values and ethics amongst the youth is the root cause of such problems. These problems are directly or indirectly related to the lack of gender sensitivity be it the case of eve-teasing, domestic violence or the case of brutal rape. The blunt truth is whatever has percolated in young minds has finally been given to them by their socio-cultural environment which mainly includes their family, school and peers. A major part of the responsibility for developing gender sensitization rests on the shoulders of family members and educators. They are the one who can kindle the feeling of gender equality in young girls and boys and develop the empathy for each other. I strongly believe in what David O’Mckay quotes “Women are created from the rib of man to be beside him, not from his head to top him, nor from his feet to trampled by him but from under his arm to be protected by him, near to his heart to be loved by him”

It shocks me when a girl child in talk show innocently asks, “Girls are physically weaker than boys, how can they fight against them?” Physical weakness of a female can never lead a male to empower her if he is sensitive enough to realize that within her delicate and physically weak body resides a tender heart which cares for him as a mother, a sister and also as a wife. But this realization comes from how he has learnt to treat a female from his surroundings at home and at school.

At home, he has been observing throughout his life, a mother following the instructions of a dominating father, a sister being scolded for not looking after him properly or not carrying out the household jobs properly in her mother’s absence.

In the present scenario, even females seem to lose their gender sensitivity towards males. Working on many fronts at the same time, getting no care and appreciation in return, frustrated from earning no respect in family and society, their outburst comes in the form of separations, broken families or as live-in relationships searching for complete freedom for oneself.

There is an urgent need to develop a family atmosphere where all members of the family enjoy an equal status, are equally respected and taken care of irrespective of their gender and are treated with empathy. As Gloria Stienem says, “We’ve begun to raise daughter more like sons, but few have the courage to raise our sons more like daughters.”

CBSE serves as an excellent forum for the society to develop Gender Sensitivity amongst pupil by its philosophy of co-educational school where girls and boys grow up together in a friendly manner, feeling each other’s biological and emotional changes while passing through the age of adolescence. They learn to respect each other’s feelings and understand their psychological needs.

Adolescent Education programs of CBSE, inclusion of Life-skills in curriculum, evaluation of students in co-scholastic areas on the basis of attitudes and values are some of the significant measures taken up by CBSE which are going to serve as important factors in evolution of Gender Sensitivity in Indian Social Environment.

Some major changes are to be made at school front too. We as Educators can make a difference by developing an atmosphere in the school, where a child naturally absorbs values and ethics as he/she grows up from a kindergarten kid to a senior secondary youngster. This would not only make the students duty conscious but also protective and caring towards others. Boys should learn through their school environment, that they are not made to empower any of their girl classmate make her realize that she is physically weaker than boy but to be their saviours and protectors in any unsafe situation. Girls should also be trained to be equally caring for their male classmates without losing their self-esteem.

In present scenario school curriculum should focus on empowerment of girl education by creating awareness amongst girls regarding psychological and physical changes of adolescence. They should be educated regarding domestic violence and sexual abuse so that they could face these challenges and share them with their parents and elders. This empowering education in the schools would reduce the creation of masculine norms in boys, to set themselves as different in nature from girls to engage in ‘sexual conquests’. This is the need of hour to give education which could create awareness in students regarding our social and moral issues.

Nicholas D.Kristof says – “In the 19th Century, the central moral challenge was slavery. In 20th century it was battle against totalitarianism. We believe that this century the paramount of moral challenge will be the struggle for gender equality around the world”. If his prediction comes true the day is not far when the little girl child of my school will find an appropriate answer to her question that how will girls fight with boys being physically weaker to them and would see my imagination of a gender sensitive India taking its shape gradually but surely.

It’s all about Humanity,

Living together in tranquillity

Where no one is powerless or powerful

Submissive or Aggressive

Then it’s a land of beauty

Where women gets an equal dignity

(52)

Gender Sensitization in School

Mousumi Bhaduri

English Teacher

Texmaco D.P.S. International School

Indonesia

The heinous crime that was committed on December 16th,2012 at Delhi has been a rude eye-opener to the gender inequality that still exists in Indian society. On the one hand we have women occupying prominent positions in society and in many professional areas earlier considered as exclusively male domains ,on the other hand even in the capital city cases of violence against women are still rampant. One cannot help but wonder at this strange paradoxical situation!

The title of this article is Gender Sensitization in school. At the very outset one may be tempted to ask some pertinent questions.What is the need for gender sensitization in today’s era? Can anyone deny the importance of boys and girls? The answer is obviously ‘No’.Are boys and girls considered equally important in remote areas or even in urban society? The answer to the last question is ‘Certainly not!’ According to me, society has a hypocritical attitude towards girls. We still hear cases of female foeticide and sex determination tests in rural and urban areas respectively.In affluent and educated classes even today such discrimination exists albeit in a milder form.If the daughter is given the opportunity to pursue higher studies in India, the son is inspired to obtain a degree from abroad. Why this discrimination between boys and girls?

Next to God we are indebted to women, first for the life itself, and then for making it worth living. -Bovee

School is a miniature society. We find children of different socio-economic groups in school. Socialization with the outside world begins at school. Children spend their formative period at school. In fact school is the best place where children can be taught not to differentiate between genders.Such children by the time they become adults,they will have instilled in their minds positive and non-differential attitude or treatment towards the other gender. As mature and balanced adults they will propagate the ideas of gender equality in society and to the future generation.The attitude of mutual respect between genders will then be consolidated; we can then hope for a more civilized society-in the real sense of the term. (Can we call a society ‘civilized’ where barbaric incidents like what happened to ‘Damini’ occurs frequently?)

If you educate a man you educate a person, but if you educate a woman you educate a family. -Ruby Manikan

Schools can take several measures to sensitize gender (equality) such as those given below:

Schools should employ staff who believe in and practise gender equality.

Schools should follow curriculum which is pro-girl child.

Moral Science education should be introduced as a regular subject at all levels and students should be examined in it like other graded subjects.

Female students should be encouraged to participate in activities which are similar to the activities in which the male students participate.

The course material should have the underlying theme of mutual respect between girls and boys and the same should be conveyed through the lessons.

Interactive sessions in the form of group discussions, debates and plays between boy and girl students should be conducted on the theme of gender equality under the supervision of teachers.

The school should fulfil its duty towards society by counselling parents and also other members of society to develop a healthy and positive attitude towards the female child (while not disregarding the male child).

Schools can felicitate female students publicly or during school assemblies for their extraordinary achievement in curricular and co-curricular areas. This would help girls to overcome the feelings of inferiority and help them to be confident.

Biographies and autobiographies of famous women should be included in the curriculum in order to inspire the female students to build their lives and career on similar lines.

Schools should encourage girls to be aware of their rights and duties, instill a sense of confidence in them,inspire them to be financially independent and impart training to them in self-defence.

Schools can definitely play a vital role to bring about a transformation in the mindset of the people towards the girl child and promote gender equality.A country can be called truly developed only if each male citizen treats each female citizen with respect,regard and equity. No other development is as important and crucial as the development of human values in society.It is time we all pondered over it.

(53)

Sensitivity of Gender

Jeevan Jyothi Public school

Thalikod, Pattikkad, P.O.

Thrissur

Gender equality is more than a goal in itself. It is a precondition for meeting the challenge of reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development and building good governance.

Sensing that the ordinance prescribing harsher punishment for offenders is not enough to prevent crime against women the government on Monday unveiled 27 measures. It also issued instructions to initiate strict action against police personal found to be either displaying bias against women or neglecting their supervisory responsibilities while registering complaints of sexual offences.

One of the tests prescribed by our ancient law givers for judging the crime situation is that the situation is fine if a young, beautiful girl laden with gold ornaments can walk at night on the streets without fear of getting robbed or molested. By this test the crime situation in the country and particularly in Delhi, is very disturbing.

The brutal gang rape of a young girl in a Delhi bus resulting in death has ignited widespread public anger and outrange throughout the country. There has been severe denunciation of the police for its failure to secure safety security of women. The fact cannot be gainsaid that crimes against women at present get a low priority in police work.

There has been an enormously increase of crimes against women not only in Delhi but also all over the country according to the available statistics. However these statistics are misleading and only reveal tip of the iceberg. A very large number of cases are either not reported to the police, or if reported, not registered.

So gender equality is a must in the society, all the actions and policies by the government and public should be focusing on gender equality.

(54)

Gender Sensitization in Schools

Dr. (Mrs.) Caroline Mathew

Principal,

Nirmala Sr. Sec. School, Port Blair,

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Introduction: Gender is a neutral word that stands for both male and female. Gender illustrates the role of women and men in a society that is determined by many factors that may arise out of social, political, economic and cultural situations and this has nothing to do with biological differences. It is the sensitization of gender in a society that determines the roles of men and women, their responsibilities, opportunities, privileges and expectations.

People are born with biological differences as male and female and then they learn from the society to be boys and girls and men and women. The society, which includes the family they live in, teaches them appropriate behaviour and attitude, roles and activities, expectations and identity and determines their gender roles. These gender roles differ from society to society. Many social, religious and cultural factors modify and regulate the roles of men and women in communities. Even though gender norms vary according to cultures and communities, it is found that women are subject to the dominant influence of men at every level of society. The inequality of power in gender relations has negative consequences for women in all areas of their lives which at large affects the social and national development.

Need for Gender Sensitization in Schools: The school, classroom and teachers are all part and parcel of a society. In a society people may suffer from various problems such as poverty, gender discrimination, oppression, inequalities, gender biases and various other issues. Children in a school come from such various types of societies and in Indian societies we cannot chip away the reality of male domination. A father is the master of the house, irrespective of the fact that he may not be a bread winner. A male child is always given much freedom than his sister. When children come to school from such backgrounds, there are possibilities that there may be gender discrimination between peer groups or by teachers. Hence there is a need for gender sensitization in schools so that children become aware of their roles in the society as future men and women.

Gender Issues in Schools: All schools face some or other gender issues from time to time that teachers may be confronted with sometime in their career. When young boys and girls study together in a classroom situation, it is quite normal to have some or other gender issues. This does not mean that only co-ed schools face all gender problems. Schools with only boys or only girls may also face various other problems. The problems may arise due to biological or social differences.

Many times it has been observed that boys try to dominate, tease or even look down upon girls as inferiors. It is also true that some girls are very dominating and would not bend down to boys. When there is a class competition between boys and girls, there is literally a row in the class. If the girls in the class are academically better than the boys, the boys try to pacify their ego by teasing or passing comments on the girls. It is not necessary that all the time it is the boys who create the issues; many times girls may also be instrumental for some gender issues in the classroom.

The present day problems also arise due to nuclear or single child families. Earlier when there were joint families, children learnt to live with each other, sharing and caring for others. But today the scenario has changed and these children from nuclear families do not understand the values of sharing or caring. They are self centred and give least importance to others. Such children in a classroom situation are unable to cooperate with others and sometimes there may be gender issues in the class.

Sometimes teacher’s deportment may also lead to gender issues in a classroom. It has been observed that some female teachers are very supportive for boys or some male teachers are very sympathetic towards girls. Sometimes the case may be the other way such as female teachers showering a lot of sympathy towards girls or male teachers being very encouraging towards boys. The teachers’ such conscious or unconscious behaviour affects children and leads to gender problems in a classroom.

Gender Biases in Teaching and Learning Settings: There are many factors that lead to gender biases in a classroom. It may be due to the subject being taught, the teaching learning materials used or teacher-pupil interaction. Sometimes the lesson being taught in the classroom or the examples being used by the teacher may lead to gender biases. Gender biases may also be through the questions asked by the teacher to the girls or boys, the question asked by the girls or boys to the teacher, the recall questions, open ended questions, time allocated to the boys and girls to answer these questions etc. Gender biases may also arise due to the feedbacks of teachers given to boys and girls in the way of positive or negative reinforcements, judgemental statements or sometimes when they just remain neutral, they may promote gender discrimination. At times, the tasks and responsibilities allotted to girls and boys may create gender biases. Boys are usually given responsibilities and work that needs more physical energy while girls are given such responsibilities that may not need much physical energy. The discipline towards boys and girls or the sentence given to boys and girls may also create gender biases. Even the language used by teachers towards students or the language used by students in a classroom may lead to gender biases. Sometimes the utilization of materials and tools by boys and girls in school such as books, computers, calculators etc., may also lead to gender biases.

Role of School in Gender Awareness and Gender Equality: A school is the first society for the students and a school plays a pivotal role in creating gender awareness and gender equality among its students. A student learns the basic lessons for life only in the school. Hence teachers have to play a crucial role in bringing this awareness among the students. First of all it is essential for the teachers to believe in gender equality and they have to put it in practice in the class. The teachers need to be conscious of their behaviour in the classroom while dealing with the boys and girls. They should try to develop a sense of equality and respect in the students for the opposite sex. By providing equal opportunities to both girls and boys and by not discriminating them on the basis of their gender, the teachers can develop mutual respect among the girls and boys for each other. Class activities or competitions in classrooms should be carried out in combined groups and not on the basis of sex. Ample opportunity should be provided to both boys and girls to work together and study together in a congenial atmosphere in a classroom so that they are sensitized about gender equality and they understand the importance of both the sexes in social circumstances. Both boys and girls should be taught to appreciate and respect each other’s strengths and weaknesses.

Conclusion: There was a time when the role of men and women were defined differently in our society as SHE was confined to the hearth and house while HE was for the fields. Today the scenario has totally changed as people are proud of their mothers, wives or daughters who walk hand in hand with men in all walks of life. But it is also true that still there is gender discrimination in some pockets of our societies. Sexual harassment can happen at work places, institutions, in the family or on the streets and the Delhi rape case is a bitter example. If schools play their roles well in gender sensitization, then the evils of gender discrimination can be uprooted from the society and there is no doubt that we should be able to create a society where there would be gender equality in true sense.

(55)

Towards Understanding Gender: Gender Sensitization in Schools

Mrs. K.V.KAMALA SUNDARAM

TGT (ENGLISH)

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA, NO.2

TAMBARAM, CHENNAI-73

The response to the query on gender is inevitable in the innumerable forms and applications that one has to fill from the moment one breathes in into this world and till the time one bids adieu once for all. Do we ever realize the significance of that word whenever we write it? Have we realized the socio-economic, cultural, political and intrinsic value of the term “gender”?

The natural difference is reiterated and underscored through the selection of names, the clothes and the toys for the baby depending on the sex of the baby. Not to be overlooked is the fact that the Gender difference ‘alarm button’ is activated at the fetus stage and female fetus is simply washed down with a blissful nod of the pragmatic and prejudiced people. Thus the “natural difference” has gradually turned into discrimination resulting in inequality and suppression. The prevailing inequality a woman faces from “womb to tomb” is pathetic and goes beyond words.

But a single sad and sadistic event has shaken our conscience and made us wake up to the realities that slap our faces.

The time has come for the (hu)mankind to recode the gender roles, gender attitudes and gender equity and equality. The time has come for the (hu)mankind to reaffirm its faith in values like justice, equality and amicable co-existence in harmony with nature.

Roles and attributes

Gender roles are realities in almost everyone’s life. They determine how males and females should think, speak, dress, and interact within the context of society. The roles conform to the anticipations of the domestic, social, religious and cultural tenets of that period and region. The infants are brought up to conform to their gender-based stereotyped responses and reactions.

The accepted stereotyped roles expect the man to be brave, confident, ready to face the ordeals of life with determination and ease. As the sole breadwinner of the home he commands respect and the natural head of the family. At the same time the woman is expected to be kind, modest, weak, take care of home and children, obedient and patient; man is knowledgeable and skilled and the woman is affectionate and benevolent.

A sketch of a home generally depicts the man reading a newspaper sitting on an armchair and the woman making a garland. The advertisement of an insurance company talks about the plans for daughters’ marriages and sons’ higher studies.

The delineation of gender roles should help the world to co-exist in harmony, play complementary roles and enhance the quality of life. On the contrary what one finds is discrimination against women, oppression and suppression and gender inequality.

Gender equality

Gender equality refers to equal access to social goods, services and resources and equal opportunities in all spheres of life for both men and women. Gender equality should assure equal participation of women and men in decision-making, equal ability to exercise their human rights, equal access to and control of resources and the benefits of development, and equal opportunities in employment and in all other aspects of their livelihoods.

Self-help groups, NGOs, Social Development Groups, various countries and International Organisations including the UN have been striving for women empowerment. Creating a space for women in public life through education and employment, ensuring the safety and dignity of women, glorifying women achievers, giving importance to girls’ education ,legal sanctions against social evils like dowry system and child marriages, celebration of Women’s Day etc. are few of the strategic steps which try to establish the gender equality.

Need of the Hour

The plethora of news reports on violence against women both at home and at public, the growing intolerance and insensitivity to the very existence of this co-being has sent signals of alarm across the globe. The cleansing of this deep malaise requires determined and well-planned strategies. Hence, Gender Sensitization has become the highly prioritized issue of the day.

The different nodes of social transactions & interactions namely, movies, television, music, books, peers, parents and teachers teach and reinforce gender roles throughout the lifespan. Especially, the home and the school should play a responsible role in moulding the young minds towards gender equality and building mutual understanding and dignity between the two genders.

The school holds the key

The students spend their impressionable years at school. A comprehensive school programme which addresses the gender issues will make a positive impact in the young minds. The schools should take care of the concept formation on gender issues, habits and practice which promote and instill confidence in the theories of gender equality.

What can the school do?

Gender sensitization could be realized through

Inclusion of the concepts through Curriculum

Instilling the values through co-curricular activities

Initiating community based activities involving the triangle of parents, teachers and media.

Providing an ambience in the school campus to nurture mutual gender -understanding.

Training the teachers to understand the challenges and planning their activities.

Inclusion of the concepts through Curriculum

Graded concepts based on gender should be introduced through curriculum right from primary education.

The selection of texts and sketches should promote gender equality.

The “in-puts” given in texts need not project stereotyped roles for men and women. For example, look at the two sums given in a primary maths text book: Sum 1: Raman had 200 Rs. in his pocket. He spent 125 Rs. to fill petrol for his bike. How much money will be left with him? Sum 2: Kamala made 27 chappathis. Her children had eaten 13 chappathis. How many are left out? Why not Kamala ride the bike?

Upper Primary classes could have stories where women are protagonists.

Secondary and Senior Secondary sections could have lessons addressing the gender discrimination and class room activities could lead to discussions and debates on gender issues.

Instilling the values through co-curricular activities

Co-curricular activities would make a great impact in the minds of the young minds. Hence, the school and the educationists should explore the possible themes and related activities to promote gender sensitivity and complementing co-existence of men and women.

The themes may include:

mental agony & damage caused by violence against women

unnoticed and unpaid excessive load of work thrust on women

comforts and luxuries proffered to men and denied to women

the yeomen service rendered by women at home

great women achievers and the hardships they faced

need for women empowerment

exploration of opportunities for girls in this modern world

need for equality and pleasant co-existence

The activities may include : slogan writing, Fancy dress competitions, elocution, debate,

essay writing , story writing, poem writing, G Clubs etc.

Initiating community based activities

Children form their opinions looking at the elders. Much depends on adults and the role model that they portray in front of the children. Hence, initiating community based activities involving the triangle of parents, teachers and media.

Parents’ Meetings could be conducted with the themes of:

Needs & Rights of Girls

Issues connected with child abuse and protective measures to be taken

Stereotyping gender roles at home and how it affects attitude

Sensitizing boys at home positively

Media: print and visual media

Media both print and visual media play an important role in forming opinions and spreading messages. Hence, the schools and Education departments should invite and involve the national as well as local media in sensitizing gender based issues. Seminars, workshops and campaigns could be worthy activities.

Training the teachers to understand the challenges and planning their activities:

In their concern for education teachers pay a lot of attention to the performance of students in assessments and guide them on their employability. What goes unnoticed in classroom transactions and teachers’ planning their lessons is the more serious aspect of education – school as the place for social transformation.

Teachers are the most important factor or agent in bringing the social change. First they should change; they should wholeheartedly accept the need to make those changes

This is one of the most urgent actions to be taken up by the HRD and other Institutions of Education like CBSE. It is to be appreciated that our educational system has taken a serious note of the state of affairs and has started taking measures in this direction.

Teachers could pay attention to:

Not passing on notions of the stereotyped gender roles during class room transactions.

The teaching aids and posters in the room ensure gender equity & equality.

Making the boys realise that women empowerment programmes are the need of the hour and victimization should be avoided.

Teacher leaders could participate in panel discussions forums in mass media to emphasis the role to be played by media.

A society of well-groomed children with deep convictions about human rights will never violate them. This can ensure a safe and secure society for our future generations, more particularly for the female gender. We need to usher in a society that is devoid of prejudices, injustices, and maltreatment against a human being, irrespective of his/her gender. We can call ourselves a civilized society only when we reach that stage.

(56)

Gender Sensitization in Schools

Delhi Public School, Jalandhar

[email protected]

“Gender equality is about providing men and women with “equal conditions for realising their full human rights and their potential to contribute to national, political, economic, social and cultural development and to benefit equally from their results.”

This is what the UN Charter states about equal

Managerial accounting techniques to help them thrive

Globally Hotels operators and managers are relying on managerial accounting techniques to help them thrive in the highly competitive and economy recession. The critical aspect of focusing on increasing revenue, minimise cost, align incentive to performance, maximise profits level without decline in the quality of services rendered by Hoteliers are becoming evolving issues in the hospitality industry.

The essence of this project is uncover how management accounting is use to provide specialised internal information to the Managers in Lagos Airport Hotel, Lagos Nigeria that are responsible for directing and controlling operations within the hotels. The types of information provided by management accounting information systems and how it help the management in their strategic planning (Short or Long term), measurement performance, attained the organisational strategic objectives of increasing the owners wealth.

SECTION 1-

DESCRIPTION OF COMPANY:

LAGOS AIRPORTS HOTELS LIMITED

Lagos Airport Hotel Limited, is a subsidiary of Odu’a Investment Company,The hotel began operation in 1942 under the ownership and management of Joseph Harold, a Brition . The hotel name was then Grand Hotel which was later changed Ikeja Arms was incorporated in 1961, having started business as an owner managed hotel with 5 rooms in 1942 under the name “Grand Hotel”, Lagos.with 5 rooms. It was renamed “Ikeja Arms Inn” in 1956 acqiured in 1959 by the Government of Western region of Nigeria comprises of Oyo, Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Ekiti States in 1959 and incorporated as Lagos Airport Hotel in 1961.

As at today the hotels had grown from 5 rooms in 1942 to 277 rooms consist of of , presidential suites , Monarchical Suite, Executive Suites, Presidential Suites, Executive/Business Suites, Standard/Executive Double, six conference halls well-secured car parks, two international Restaurants four Bars and an Olympic-sized Swimming Pool.

The hotel under the leadership of Alhaji  Adebayo Jimoh , has over five hundred highly professional staff with additional two subsidiaries hotels namely Lafia Hotel and Premier Hotel Ibadan.

The hotel strategic vision is to be the preferred choice for customers in the Nigeria’s hospitality industry. and mission statement is to passionately deliver efficient and catering services at competitive and affordable prices. In Peat survey 2009 the Airport is rated among the best top hotels in Nigeria and among the first leading hospitality companies in Lagos State. is rated among the best top 20 hotels in Nigeria.

SECTION 2

COST BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS

HOTEL BUSINESS OPERATION AND COST BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS

HOTEL ACCOUNTING STRUCTURE AND LAGOS AIRPORT HOTEL EXPERIENCE

The hotel business operation globally is characterised with a number of different cyclical sales revenue cycles which includes daily operating cycle, weekly , seasional cycle and general business cycle(Reccession). The Lagos airport hotels is not expempted from the above cyclical business patterned. Significantly, these various cyclical operation in hotel create a unique difficulties in forecasting revenue and cost.

Secondly , hospitality operation are “People oriented and people- driven”, it is more difficult to effectively automate and control cost than it is on other non hospitality business sector

2.1 COST BEHAVIOUR AND ANALYSIS

Lagos Airport Hotel operations tend to be highly departimised with separate operating division/unit that provide accommodation/lodging, Restaurants & Bar services, Conference & Banquest, Etc . Consequently the hotel accounting systems are designed to allow an independent evaluation of each operating department or division.

To this end, cost directly traceable to a department are identified as direct cost, typically major direct cost in hotels includes cost of sales(foods &drinks), salary &wages, operating supplies e.g Soap, Toilet tissue paper etc . After direct costs are determined they are deducted from revenue to isolate contributory income which represent the dept’s or division contribution to support undistributed general overheads.

As in their practice indirect cost are not easily traceable to a department and referred to as “undistributed costs”

One of the arguments in favour of allocating indirect expenses to department is that aithough department managers are not responsible for controlling those costs, they should be aware of what portion of them is related to their department since this could have an impact on departmental decision making such as establishing room rates, foods and other service selling prices at a level that covers all costs not just direct cost.

When this type of Full -cost accounting is implemented in a responsibility accounting system , it allows a manager to know the total minimum revenue that must be generated to cover all costs even though the control of some of those costs is not their responsility.

Nevertheless there are mistake as regard the direct costs, controllable costs, indirect costs and non controllable cost. The assertion that say direct costs are generally more easily controlled than indirect costs but (Salome 2009) argued that “in the long run all costs are controllable by someone at sometimes”

2.2 RELEVANT & NON RELEVANT COST CONCEPT AND APPLICATION IN HOTEL

The theory of relevant and non relevant cost is widely used in hospitality cost management( ) the application is use for variety of decision making.

A relevant cost is one that affect decision and such a cost must be in the future and different between alternatives. For example The Lagos airport is considering to introduce online booking with ATM Payment portal, the relevant cost would be the cost of web solution, ATM Machine, the cost of training employees on the new solutions and any change in maintenance and material supply costs on the new solution/machine. As long as no change is necessary in the number of staff required, the hotel labor cost would not be relevant cost and it would make no difference to the decision

On cost behaviour Most hotels have a high proportion of fixed cost which are not expected to change in the short run of an operating period og a year or less and will not vary with increases or decrease in sales revenue, examples are management salaries, insurance or committed cost of an advertising campaign ,So this type of costs are not relevant for decision making

Variable cost on the hand change in direct proportion to a change in sales revenue for example the more foods and drink sold, the more cost of sales incurred

The usefulness of relevant cost , non relevant cost, fixed , variable, sunk cost etc in hotel business help the managers in making the following types of decision

Allocation of indirect costs to revenue unit/dept

Which types of equipment should they buy

Whether to sell below total cost?

Whether hotel should be close during off season? As the cost of low -activity characterises hotel sectors

Which investment/business should they buy

Make or buy decision making

Alot more

In the airport hotel activity -based costing is not broadly used while target costing has squat adoption level. But standard costing is most popular costing used in the hotel

2.3 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND DECISION MAKING IN HOTEL – A RELATIVE ILLUSTRATIVE STUDY OF LAGOS AIRPORT HOTEL

The business success of the business depends to a very large extent upon the capacity of top management to develop the appropriate strategies in a number of issues which conform to the business corporate strategic goals

The hotels have typically diverse level of decision making. Management at each level takes decision that are within its capability and responsibility

For each level of decision making management accounting system has been found to provide appropriates information required for management decision making.

To be specific the management accounting information system was found to be helpful to the hotel management to formulate and execute

Strategies concerned with volume and capacity

Strategies for assessing the relative profitability of division/ department or revenue area

Strategies for pricing in condition of hotel space capacity

Strategies for selecting product/service range where there are capacity or other constraints.

Marginal costing is used by the hotels for cost structure and pricing decision. The marginal costing is mainly used for short-term planning, while activity based costing is the favoured costing method for long term strategic planning.

The cost -volume -profit approach to decision (e.g Breakeven analysis) are widely produces to assist management in decision making . this assist them in evaluating current and future events regarding sales revenue inflow and cost outflow

Cost volume profit analysis(CVP) cost are separated into variable and fixed componenets. They are then used to make informed and rational decision

TABLE – SHOWING Break even sales

Break even sales equitation for Loding unit for 2009(See Financal hilghlight week6 project outline)

The fixed costs(FC) are N197,702 , sales revenue N568,900 and variable cost (VC) are N63,968 .what is breakeven sales revenue?

The break even point(BEP)

= Fixed cost

(Sales revenue – Variable cost)

= 197,702

(2053-230)

BEP = 108 Rooms per day.

Fig2: Break even revenue

FC / 1-(variable cost/sales revenue)

197702/ 1- (N63,968/N568,900)

197,702/88.7% = N222,888

CVP analysis is a logical extension of breakeven analysis in hotels business it is used to make the following decision among others.

At what level of sales revenue will operating income be TARTGETD INcme may be 700,000,000

How much must sales revenue increase to cover a new fixed cost

If room rates are changes, what will be the effect on rooms sold?

Whether to give bulk discounts or not?

New investment decision

SECTION 3

BUDGETING PROCESSING REVIEW

BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY PROCESS OVERVIEW IN HOTEL INDUSTRY

The objectives of organisation will be faciliatated by the implementation of an efficient budgeting, this because the whole essence of budgeting is to ensure that the allocation of resources is palnned to avoid waste and promote profitability

For hotel managers to make meaningful decision about future, a manager must look ahead(Budget) Antril. P & Mclaney.E (2009)

Martin & Micheal (2004) argued that for hotel or restaurant operators or manger the budget might be no more than looking ahead to tomorrow, estimating how many guests per night , estimating how many customers will eat in the restaurant etc

Budgets not expressed in monetary terms could involve numbers of guest to be served, number of rooms to be occupied, number of employees required, or some other unit as opposed to monetary value

Agara(2007), Martin& Micheal (2004) identified the three main purposes of budgeting in hotels business

To provide organised estimates of future unit sales, sales revenues, expenses, net income, staffing requirements or equipment needs, broken down by operating period and department

To provide management with long-term and short term goals.

To provide a method of control so that actual results can be evaluated against budget plans and adjustments, if necessary can be made

The budgetary cycle or process is a five part process that involved the follows

Establish attainable goals or objective

Plan to achieve these goals or objectives

Compare actual results with those planned , and analyse the difference(variance)

Take corrective action required

Improve the effectiveness of budgeting

The starting point in budgeting is to forecast sales revenue, in hotel operation in forecasting the mnager usually considered past actual sales revenue and trends, current anticipated trends and the economic, competitive and limiting factors.

Once the sales revenue had been forecast, direct operating expenses can be calculated based on anticipated sales level and undistributed expenses allocated or deducted to arrive at the net income.

The various types of budgets include fixed, flecible, capital budget, operating , departmental,master budget etc

Zero based budgeting (ZBB) this budget is found useful for controlling and controlling hotel operation, as the name implies no expenses can be budgeted for or incurred unless they are jusitified in advance. ZBB requires each department head to jusitify in advance the entire annual budget froma zero base. The department manager responsible for the cost prepare the analysis. After each department or division is anakysed , management ranks all decision unit and the final budget is allocated according to this ranking

The variance analysis is useful tools for budgetary control as it is used for isolating the cause of difference between budgeted and actual figures.

SECTION 4:

FIRM PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS4.0 LAGOS AIRPORT HOTELS FINANCIAL STATEMENT AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

The financial report present merely a stewardship report . if the information is to have real meaning both to the management and other users of the report, it must be subjected to a process of analysis and interpretation.

To do this, various stastics yardstick or analytical tools like ration analysis, comparative analysis, common size vertical analyisi , trend analysis/ percentage can be used.

Ratio analysis is concerning with expressing relationship between inputs and output, the objective of ratio analysis is to construct a framework of such relationship which are important for the success of the company.

One part of this framework bring together all these aspect of the business which contribute to profitability both fot the company and owners, another part of the framework assesses the liquidity of the hotel, the remaining part reflect the hotel’s standing or viability for the future.

Table : Lagos Airport Hotel financial performance Anaysis for 5 years

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

Profitability Ratio

Gross profit Ratio or Margin

63.5%

46.5%

51.8%

68%

67.6

Net profit ratio or margin

17.2%

1.3%

4.3%

17.4%

15.7%

Return on Capital employed

63.7%

3.9%

12.3%

43.1%

61.1%

Liquidity / Investment Ratio

Current Ratio

1.2:1

1.3:1

1.34:1

1.37:1

2.05:1

Gearing Ratio

103%

91.4%

91.7%

93.5

49%

Total Debt to shareholder fund

193%

169%

171%

166%

156.8%

Earning per share

2.47

0.14

0.42

1.5

1.25

Comments:

Gross profit ratio which indicates the gross margin on sales in a period is steadly show a sign of improved 2009 from downward slope that occurred between 2008 & 2007, however the gross profit ratio needs improvement

The net income ratio and return on capital which indicates a relative efficiency of the hotels business and overall profitability of the business is worrisome even with 17.3% for net return 63.7 ROCE for 2009 the performance is still far below expected returns level and it glaring that the hotel has been performance in term of profitability badly. For the hotel to remain operation for the nearest features it must be profitable and liquid. The strategy to adopt here is for the hotel’s managemenet to reduce its operational cost, improve revenue per guests,rates of occupany and innovate a new products or service that can improve revenue and profitability stream.

The liquidity position of the hotel is far below ratio 2:1 recomended for healthy company, liquidity ratio measure the ability of a firm to meet its short -term obligations and reflect short term financial strength of the firm while the gearing ratio is extremely high as the company operation is funded from debts and depend on borrowed fund for expansion which is very vulerabilty to earning of shareholders and poses a possibility of take -over or bankcruptcy.

The overall trend analysis for the hotel(see apendix2) provides uselful insight into some of the factors that might contributed to this aweful financial position

Interestingly, many individual operating ration are specifically available for hospitality industries which focus on internal operation like rooms/accommodation, Foods & Beverage analysis and decision making. Some of these analysis includes but not limited to income per guests for each division, costs per guest by items, foods and or beverage cost percentage, labor cost percentage average foods or beverage dollar/Naira by meals period and by revenue areas, seat turnover by meals period etc

In the rooms or lodgimg division average rate per occupied room, revenue per available room (REVPAR) , Occupancy percentage, annual revenue per room, labour cost percentage etc

The internal analysis of the above influenced the management decision making in term of improve sales level, directing efforts into selling higher priced rooms rather than lower priced, increasing rate of occupancy percentage or average room rate.

On the impact of success critical factor(CSF) on the financial performance, the monetary indicators, grosss operating profit per available room was used

SECTION 5 : CAPITAL INVESTMENT ANALYSIS

5.0 CAPITAL BUDGETING TECHNIQUES IN HOTEL INDUSTRY

The largest investment that hotel or food seervice business has to make is in the land and building (Martin& Micheal 2004) . The hotels management also make frequent investment decision for items such as equipment, furniture purchases and replacement. Due to elongated life time and colossal of capital outlays entail for capital investment, management espoused a more pragmatic approach and use appropriate capital investment control methodology to ensure right capital investment decision making

There are hazard in making capital investment, the hazards can be seldom be eliminated but there are techniques available that allow the manager to reduce some of the quesswork

The Lagos Airport hotels use Payback period and net present value, rn as a tools to guide investment decision

A Case study of capital investment decision making in Lagos Airport Hotel

A typical capital investment decision techniques is the Lagos airport hotel was contemplating of improve the restaurant services and planning to purchase a new type of oven and other modern kitchen apparatus. Or invest in Cinema or Casio Opertaion The hotel management is provided with two alternative investment option to choose from with their annual net cash inflows over the five -year investment period

Year

Otption1- Restaurant Improvement

Option2- New Cinema &Casio Centre

1

1,200,000

630,000

2

1,290,000

870,000

3

1,320,000

1,275,000

4

1,230,000

1,725,000

5

615,000

1,815,000

The initial investment outlay of N4,950,000

NPV is at 12%, Would either of them be a good investment for the hotel?

Solution

Option 1 -Restaurant improvement

Net cash flows

Cumulative net cash flows

Year 0

Cost investment

(4,950,000)

(4,950,000)

Year1

Net Saving

1,200,000

(3,750,000) (-4,950,000 + 1,200,000)

Year 2

Net saving before Dep

1,290,000

(2,460,000) (-3,750,000 +1,290,000)

Year 3

Net saving before Dep

1,320,000

(1,140,000 ) (-2,460,000+ 1,320,000)

Year4

Net saving before Dep

1,230,000

90,000 (-1,140,000 +1,230,000)

Year5

Net saving before Dep

615,000

705,000 ( 90,000+ 615,000)

Option 1 Payback period = 3 years, 11 months plus 4 days

Option 2 -New Cinema & CASINO CENTRE

Net cash flows

Cumulative net cash flows

Year 0

Cost investment

(4,950,000)

(4,950,000)

Year1

Net Saving before Dep

630,000

(4,320,000) (-4,950,000 + 630,000)

Year 2

Net saving before Dep

870,000

(3,450,000) (-4,320,000 +870,000)

Year 3

Net saving before Dep

1,275,000

(2,175,000 ) (-3,450,000+ 1,275,000)

Year4

Net saving before Dep

1,725,000

(450,000) (-2,175,000 +1,725,000)

Year5

Net saving before Dep

1,815,000

1,365,000 ( -450,000+ 1,815,000)

Option 2 Payback period = 4 years, 3 months

The analysis above showed option 1 have a shorter pay back period and logic of using pay back period is that projects that can recoup their cost quickly are economically more attractive than those with longer payback(Antrill & Mclaney 2009) so Option 1 is to be selected based on pay period methods.

The major drawback o9f pay back period is that it ignore cash flow after the payback period and it does not take time value of money(Effect of inflation/ interest /risk etc) into consideration

NET PRESENT VALUE(NPV)

Net present value methods of appraisal consider all of the costs and benefits of each investment opportunity and make a logical allowance for the timing of those costs and benefits

The NPV is consider better among all other investment appraisal techniques because of cashflow timming recognition, uses of all relevant cash flow and meet the objective of the business which to increase owners’ wealth

LAGOS AIRPORT HOTEL USING NPV METHOD

OPTION1 -Restaurant Improvement

NPV

Option 2 – New Cinema & Casino centre

Time

Cash flow

N

NPV (12%)

Cash flow

N

NPV

Year0

(4,950,000)

(4,950,00)

(4,950,000)

(4,950,00)

Year1

1,200,000

0.8929

1,071,480

630,000

562,527

Year 2

1,290,000

0.7972

1,028,388

870,000

693,564

Year 3

1,320,000

0.7118

939,575

1,275,000

907,545

Year 4

1,230,000

0.6355

781,665

1,725,000

1,096,238

Year 5

615,000

0.5066

311,559

1,815,000

919,479

-817,333

-770,647

Here we must ask how can management decide which option or project is acceptable, judging by NPV decision which stated that

If the NPV is positive the project should be accepted, if it is negative the project should be rejected

If there are two (or more) competing projects/options that have positive NPVs, the project with higher (or highest) should be selected.

In this case of Lagos Airport hotel non of the two option is Negative and it should be rejected unless management has other non financial benefits attached with options which may still at long run contribute to the actualisation of the hotels strategic goals.

SECTION 6:

COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS

COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS

As usual for business environment in the hotel industry is a highly competitvive, and Lagos Hotels Limited found itself in a such competitive based marketing segment with more than 5000 operators in the market. Significantly the hotels has the followings 7 majors/ market leaders to complete with

Sheraton Hotels & Tower, Pretoria Hotels, Federal Palace Hotels, Lagos Hilton Hotel, Excellence Hotel, PVC Hotels and Reassurance Hotels

The core keys advantages of competitors in Comparism with Lagos airport range from their location advantage(Most of them located in Victoria and ikoyi areas of Lagos that accommodation the major businesses in Nigeria) International Operations advantage, 21st century well designed architectural building , modern facilities & luxury, Branding, high Price advantages, innovation program (Customer Loyalty Program) etc

The major advantages of Lagos airport is strategic location in the ikeja but with old building structures

Next to Lagos is Victoria Island, which takes while to get to, about 2hrs, this is because of the amount of traffic and chaos on the roads, also some of the roads are in a bit of a mess, pot holes that can swallow you without trace. Victoria island is modern, and the Hotel Eco is very good, but costs £250 GBP per night – note the Sheraton in Lagos is also modern and costs £300-350 per night, bottled water in the Eco was £4, but if you are spending £250 a night – who cares, you must keep drinking water in this heat. These hotels do cost more than a London Hotel, but then there is no where else decent apart from Lagos Airport Hotel. Note the Airport Hotel was £100 per night, I booked at the desk where ther is a written price sheet on the wall, you will have to put down a security deposit but you do get this back at the end of your stay.

SECTION 7: BALANCED SCORECARD

APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORED CARD FRAMEWORK (A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS AIRPORT HOTEL)

Balanced scorecard as the name suggested offers a more balanced view of a firm’s or of a manager’s performance by intergrating both financial and non financial information in a coherent fashion .This overcomes one of the obvious defects of traditional performance measurement systems which places undue emphasis on historical financial information.

For long term – effective and efficient performance, especially in hotel enterprise, the information related to service quality, introduction of new products, service, additional supply, entrance on new market, the competitor performance and human capital relation management is vital.

Goardana & Mateja also empaciated the need for balanced score card application in hotel indsutry ” The hotel’s operations are oriented towards people and to that end their financial performance depends on the behaviour and manners of hotels employees, the development of new products and service and as the most important , guest satisfaction”

In Lagos airport hotel use it to implement strategies of a change/ restructing in management programme undergo in 2009

Apart from using it to create a link between the performance measurement indicators and hotel strategies, Management use it to communicate strategy to both managers and staff.

At operational level the Balance scored card are use to align employess efforts with those reuired for successful strategic implementation However, successful implementation of a balanced scorecard is not a trivial matters especially for hotels like Lagos Airport Hotels that is Government owned which make some top management appointment political in nature. Apart from this balanced scored concept is simple but it implementation is found to be time consuming and costly task especially to hotel like Lagos Airport with weak financial resources and manpower to support the practice of this new management concept in the longrun.

Table: Lagos Airport Hotel – Balanced scorecard

Hotel Management Balanced Scorecard

Managing the day to day activities of a hotel can be facilitated with the help of KPIs. KPIs, on a BSC are the means to attain the end of ‘Measuring Performance’. Such tool can be used when umpteen external and internal forces have a bearing on the organi

Perspective

Performance

Financial Perspective

53.63%

Customer Perspective

65.56%

Efficiency

29.67%

Staff perspective

65.78%

Total Performance

54.85%

Scorecard includes 4 categories, 17 indicators

Strategy tree and scorecard details :

Perspective

Goal

Weight

(x of 10)

Description

Performance

(%)

Measure

unit

Target

Values

Financial Perspective

3

53.63%

Wage Costs as a % of total sales

3

It refers to wage cost as a % of total sales of the hotel.

40%

%

0%

Annual operating profit per room

3

It refers to annual operating profit per room available in the hotel.

10000

$

25000

Food cost as a % of food sales

2

40%

%

0%

% increase in labor costs

2

20%

%

0%

Total Performance in group

 

Financial Perspective

53.63%

Customer Perspective

3

65.56%

Number of positive feedbacks

3

It refers to number of positive feedbacks received from the customers (on a scale of 1 to 10).

9

Score

10

Number of complaints received

2

It refers to number of complaints received from the customers regarding the services provided by hotel (on a scale of 1 to 10).

3

Score

10

Response rate

3

Metric is not available in trial version

1

minutes

1

Frequent customers as a % of total customers

2

Metric is not available in trial version

30%

%

100%

Total Performance in group

 

Customer Perspective

65.56%

Efficiency

2

29.67%

% of room booked through reservation channels

2

It refers to % of room booked through reservation channels maintained by the hotel.

25%

%

100%

Internet bookings

2

indicates the % of bookings received through internet services.

30%

%

100%

Room occupancy

2

Metric is not available in trial version

60%

%

100%

Rate of sales inquiry conversion

2

Metric is not available in trial version

30%

%

60%

Average length of stay

2

Metric is not available in trial version

2

days

4

Total Performance in group

 

Efficiency

29.67%

Staff perspective

2

65.78%

Staff turn

Globally Hotels operators and managers are relying on managerial accounting techniques to help them thrive in the highly competitive and economy recession. The critical aspect of focusing on increasing revenue, minimise cost, align incentive to performance, maximise profits level without decline in the quality of services rendered by Hoteliers are becoming evolving issues in the hospitality industry.

The essence of this project is uncover how management accounting is use to provide specialised internal information to the Managers in Lagos Airport Hotel, Lagos Nigeria that are responsible for directing and controlling operations within the hotels. The types of information provided by management accounting information systems and how it help the management in their strategic planning (Short or Long term), measurement performance, attained the organisational strategic objectives of increasing the owners wealth.

SECTION 1-

DESCRIPTION OF COMPANY:

LAGOS AIRPORTS HOTELS LIMITED

Lagos Airport Hotel Limited, is a subsidiary of Odu’a Investment Company,The hotel began operation in 1942 under the ownership and management of Joseph Harold, a Brition . The hotel name was then Grand Hotel which was later changed Ikeja Arms was incorporated in 1961, having started business as an owner managed hotel with 5 rooms in 1942 under the name “Grand Hotel”, Lagos.with 5 rooms. It was renamed “Ikeja Arms Inn” in 1956 acqiured in 1959 by the Government of Western region of Nigeria comprises of Oyo, Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Ekiti States in 1959 and incorporated as Lagos Airport Hotel in 1961.

As at today the hotels had grown from 5 rooms in 1942 to 277 rooms consist of of , presidential suites , Monarchical Suite, Executive Suites, Presidential Suites, Executive/Business Suites, Standard/Executive Double, six conference halls well-secured car parks, two international Restaurants four Bars and an Olympic-sized Swimming Pool.

The hotel under the leadership of Alhaji  Adebayo Jimoh , has over five hundred highly professional staff with additional two subsidiaries hotels namely Lafia Hotel and Premier Hotel Ibadan.

The hotel strategic vision is to be the preferred choice for customers in the Nigeria’s hospitality industry. and mission statement is to passionately deliver efficient and catering services at competitive and affordable prices. In Peat survey 2009 the Airport is rated among the best top hotels in Nigeria and among the first leading hospitality companies in Lagos State. is rated among the best top 20 hotels in Nigeria.

SECTION 2

COST BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS

HOTEL BUSINESS OPERATION AND COST BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS

HOTEL ACCOUNTING STRUCTURE AND LAGOS AIRPORT HOTEL EXPERIENCE

The hotel business operation globally is characterised with a number of different cyclical sales revenue cycles which includes daily operating cycle, weekly , seasional cycle and general business cycle(Reccession). The Lagos airport hotels is not expempted from the above cyclical business patterned. Significantly, these various cyclical operation in hotel create a unique difficulties in forecasting revenue and cost.

Secondly , hospitality operation are “People oriented and people- driven”, it is more difficult to effectively automate and control cost than it is on other non hospitality business sector

2.1 COST BEHAVIOUR AND ANALYSIS

Lagos Airport Hotel operations tend to be highly departimised with separate operating division/unit that provide accommodation/lodging, Restaurants & Bar services, Conference & Banquest, Etc . Consequently the hotel accounting systems are designed to allow an independent evaluation of each operating department or division.

To this end, cost directly traceable to a department are identified as direct cost, typically major direct cost in hotels includes cost of sales(foods &drinks), salary &wages, operating supplies e.g Soap, Toilet tissue paper etc . After direct costs are determined they are deducted from revenue to isolate contributory income which represent the dept’s or division contribution to support undistributed general overheads.

As in their practice indirect cost are not easily traceable to a department and referred to as “undistributed costs”

One of the arguments in favour of allocating indirect expenses to department is that aithough department managers are not responsible for controlling those costs, they should be aware of what portion of them is related to their department since this could have an impact on departmental decision making such as establishing room rates, foods and other service selling prices at a level that covers all costs not just direct cost.

When this type of Full -cost accounting is implemented in a responsibility accounting system , it allows a manager to know the total minimum revenue that must be generated to cover all costs even though the control of some of those costs is not their responsility.

Nevertheless there are mistake as regard the direct costs, controllable costs, indirect costs and non controllable cost. The assertion that say direct costs are generally more easily controlled than indirect costs but (Salome 2009) argued that “in the long run all costs are controllable by someone at sometimes”

2.2 RELEVANT & NON RELEVANT COST CONCEPT AND APPLICATION IN HOTEL

The theory of relevant and non relevant cost is widely used in hospitality cost management( ) the application is use for variety of decision making.

A relevant cost is one that affect decision and such a cost must be in the future and different between alternatives. For example The Lagos airport is considering to introduce online booking with ATM Payment portal, the relevant cost would be the cost of web solution, ATM Machine, the cost of training employees on the new solutions and any change in maintenance and material supply costs on the new solution/machine. As long as no change is necessary in the number of staff required, the hotel labor cost would not be relevant cost and it would make no difference to the decision

On cost behaviour Most hotels have a high proportion of fixed cost which are not expected to change in the short run of an operating period og a year or less and will not vary with increases or decrease in sales revenue, examples are management salaries, insurance or committed cost of an advertising campaign ,So this type of costs are not relevant for decision making

Variable cost on the hand change in direct proportion to a change in sales revenue for example the more foods and drink sold, the more cost of sales incurred

The usefulness of relevant cost , non relevant cost, fixed , variable, sunk cost etc in hotel business help the managers in making the following types of decision

Allocation of indirect costs to revenue unit/dept

Which types of equipment should they buy

Whether to sell below total cost?

Whether hotel should be close during off season? As the cost of low -activity characterises hotel sectors

Which investment/business should they buy

Make or buy decision making

Alot more

In the airport hotel activity -based costing is not broadly used while target costing has squat adoption level. But standard costing is most popular costing used in the hotel

2.3 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND DECISION MAKING IN HOTEL – A RELATIVE ILLUSTRATIVE STUDY OF LAGOS AIRPORT HOTEL

The business success of the business depends to a very large extent upon the capacity of top management to develop the appropriate strategies in a number of issues which conform to the business corporate strategic goals

The hotels have typically diverse level of decision making. Management at each level takes decision that are within its capability and responsibility

For each level of decision making management accounting system has been found to provide appropriates information required for management decision making.

To be specific the management accounting information system was found to be helpful to the hotel management to formulate and execute

Strategies concerned with volume and capacity

Strategies for assessing the relative profitability of division/ department or revenue area

Strategies for pricing in condition of hotel space capacity

Strategies for selecting product/service range where there are capacity or other constraints.

Marginal costing is used by the hotels for cost structure and pricing decision. The marginal costing is mainly used for short-term planning, while activity based costing is the favoured costing method for long term strategic planning.

The cost -volume -profit approach to decision (e.g Breakeven analysis) are widely produces to assist management in decision making . this assist them in evaluating current and future events regarding sales revenue inflow and cost outflow

Cost volume profit analysis(CVP) cost are separated into variable and fixed componenets. They are then used to make informed and rational decision

TABLE – SHOWING Break even sales

Break even sales equitation for Loding unit for 2009(See Financal hilghlight week6 project outline)

The fixed costs(FC) are N197,702 , sales revenue N568,900 and variable cost (VC) are N63,968 .what is breakeven sales revenue?

The break even point(BEP)

= Fixed cost

(Sales revenue – Variable cost)

= 197,702

(2053-230)

BEP = 108 Rooms per day.

Fig2: Break even revenue

FC / 1-(variable cost/sales revenue)

197702/ 1- (N63,968/N568,900)

197,702/88.7% = N222,888

CVP analysis is a logical extension of breakeven analysis in hotels business it is used to make the following decision among others.

At what level of sales revenue will operating income be TARTGETD INcme may be 700,000,000

How much must sales revenue increase to cover a new fixed cost

If room rates are changes, what will be the effect on rooms sold?

Whether to give bulk discounts or not?

New investment decision

SECTION 3

BUDGETING PROCESSING REVIEW

BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY PROCESS OVERVIEW IN HOTEL INDUSTRY

The objectives of organisation will be faciliatated by the implementation of an efficient budgeting, this because the whole essence of budgeting is to ensure that the allocation of resources is palnned to avoid waste and promote profitability

For hotel managers to make meaningful decision about future, a manager must look ahead(Budget) Antril. P & Mclaney.E (2009)

Martin & Micheal (2004) argued that for hotel or restaurant operators or manger the budget might be no more than looking ahead to tomorrow, estimating how many guests per night , estimating how many customers will eat in the restaurant etc

Budgets not expressed in monetary terms could involve numbers of guest to be served, number of rooms to be occupied, number of employees required, or some other unit as opposed to monetary value

Agara(2007), Martin& Micheal (2004) identified the three main purposes of budgeting in hotels business

To provide organised estimates of future unit sales, sales revenues, expenses, net income, staffing requirements or equipment needs, broken down by operating period and department

To provide management with long-term and short term goals.

To provide a method of control so that actual results can be evaluated against budget plans and adjustments, if necessary can be made

The budgetary cycle or process is a five part process that involved the follows

Establish attainable goals or objective

Plan to achieve these goals or objectives

Compare actual results with those planned , and analyse the difference(variance)

Take corrective action required

Improve the effectiveness of budgeting

The starting point in budgeting is to forecast sales revenue, in hotel operation in forecasting the mnager usually considered past actual sales revenue and trends, current anticipated trends and the economic, competitive and limiting factors.

Once the sales revenue had been forecast, direct operating expenses can be calculated based on anticipated sales level and undistributed expenses allocated or deducted to arrive at the net income.

The various types of budgets include fixed, flecible, capital budget, operating , departmental,master budget etc

Zero based budgeting (ZBB) this budget is found useful for controlling and controlling hotel operation, as the name implies no expenses can be budgeted for or incurred unless they are jusitified in advance. ZBB requires each department head to jusitify in advance the entire annual budget froma zero base. The department manager responsible for the cost prepare the analysis. After each department or division is anakysed , management ranks all decision unit and the final budget is allocated according to this ranking

The variance analysis is useful tools for budgetary control as it is used for isolating the cause of difference between budgeted and actual figures.

SECTION 4:

FIRM PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS4.0 LAGOS AIRPORT HOTELS FINANCIAL STATEMENT AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

The financial report present merely a stewardship report . if the information is to have real meaning both to the management and other users of the report, it must be subjected to a process of analysis and interpretation.

To do this, various stastics yardstick or analytical tools like ration analysis, comparative analysis, common size vertical analyisi , trend analysis/ percentage can be used.

Ratio analysis is concerning with expressing relationship between inputs and output, the objective of ratio analysis is to construct a framework of such relationship which are important for the success of the company.

One part of this framework bring together all these aspect of the business which contribute to profitability both fot the company and owners, another part of the framework assesses the liquidity of the hotel, the remaining part reflect the hotel’s standing or viability for the future.

Table : Lagos Airport Hotel financial performance Anaysis for 5 years

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

Profitability Ratio

Gross profit Ratio or Margin

63.5%

46.5%

51.8%

68%

67.6

Net profit ratio or margin

17.2%

1.3%

4.3%

17.4%

15.7%

Return on Capital employed

63.7%

3.9%

12.3%

43.1%

61.1%

Liquidity / Investment Ratio

Current Ratio

1.2:1

1.3:1

1.34:1

1.37:1

2.05:1

Gearing Ratio

103%

91.4%

91.7%

93.5

49%

Total Debt to shareholder fund

193%

169%

171%

166%

156.8%

Earning per share

2.47

0.14

0.42

1.5

1.25

Comments:

Gross profit ratio which indicates the gross margin on sales in a period is steadly show a sign of improved 2009 from downward slope that occurred between 2008 & 2007, however the gross profit ratio needs improvement

The net income ratio and return on capital which indicates a relative efficiency of the hotels business and overall profitability of the business is worrisome even with 17.3% for net return 63.7 ROCE for 2009 the performance is still far below expected returns level and it glaring that the hotel has been performance in term of profitability badly. For the hotel to remain operation for the nearest features it must be profitable and liquid. The strategy to adopt here is for the hotel’s managemenet to reduce its operational cost, improve revenue per guests,rates of occupany and innovate a new products or service that can improve revenue and profitability stream.

The liquidity position of the hotel is far below ratio 2:1 recomended for healthy company, liquidity ratio measure the ability of a firm to meet its short -term obligations and reflect short term financial strength of the firm while the gearing ratio is extremely high as the company operation is funded from debts and depend on borrowed fund for expansion which is very vulerabilty to earning of shareholders and poses a possibility of take -over or bankcruptcy.

The overall trend analysis for the hotel(see apendix2) provides uselful insight into some of the factors that might contributed to this aweful financial position

Interestingly, many individual operating ration are specifically available for hospitality industries which focus on internal operation like rooms/accommodation, Foods & Beverage analysis and decision making. Some of these analysis includes but not limited to income per guests for each division, costs per guest by items, foods and or beverage cost percentage, labor cost percentage average foods or beverage dollar/Naira by meals period and by revenue areas, seat turnover by meals period etc

In the rooms or lodgimg division average rate per occupied room, revenue per available room (REVPAR) , Occupancy percentage, annual revenue per room, labour cost percentage etc

The internal analysis of the above influenced the management decision making in term of improve sales level, directing efforts into selling higher priced rooms rather than lower priced, increasing rate of occupancy percentage or average room rate.

On the impact of success critical factor(CSF) on the financial performance, the monetary indicators, grosss operating profit per available room was used

SECTION 5 : CAPITAL INVESTMENT ANALYSIS

5.0 CAPITAL BUDGETING TECHNIQUES IN HOTEL INDUSTRY

The largest investment that hotel or food seervice business has to make is in the land and building (Martin& Micheal 2004) . The hotels management also make frequent investment decision for items such as equipment, furniture purchases and replacement. Due to elongated life time and colossal of capital outlays entail for capital investment, management espoused a more pragmatic approach and use appropriate capital investment control methodology to ensure right capital investment decision making

There are hazard in making capital investment, the hazards can be seldom be eliminated but there are techniques available that allow the manager to reduce some of the quesswork

The Lagos Airport hotels use Payback period and net present value, rn as a tools to guide investment decision

A Case study of capital investment decision making in Lagos Airport Hotel

A typical capital investment decision techniques is the Lagos airport hotel was contemplating of improve the restaurant services and planning to purchase a new type of oven and other modern kitchen apparatus. Or invest in Cinema or Casio Opertaion The hotel management is provided with two alternative investment option to choose from with their annual net cash inflows over the five -year investment period

Year

Otption1- Restaurant Improvement

Option2- New Cinema &Casio Centre

1

1,200,000

630,000

2

1,290,000

870,000

3

1,320,000

1,275,000

4

1,230,000

1,725,000

5

615,000

1,815,000

The initial investment outlay of N4,950,000

NPV is at 12%, Would either of them be a good investment for the hotel?

Solution

Option 1 -Restaurant improvement

Net cash flows

Cumulative net cash flows

Year 0

Cost investment

(4,950,000)

(4,950,000)

Year1

Net Saving

1,200,000

(3,750,000) (-4,950,000 + 1,200,000)

Year 2

Net saving before Dep

1,290,000

(2,460,000) (-3,750,000 +1,290,000)

Year 3

Net saving before Dep

1,320,000

(1,140,000 ) (-2,460,000+ 1,320,000)

Year4

Net saving before Dep

1,230,000

90,000 (-1,140,000 +1,230,000)

Year5

Net saving before Dep

615,000

705,000 ( 90,000+ 615,000)

Option 1 Payback period = 3 years, 11 months plus 4 days

Option 2 -New Cinema & CASINO CENTRE

Net cash flows

Cumulative net cash flows

Year 0

Cost investment

(4,950,000)

(4,950,000)

Year1

Net Saving before Dep

630,000

(4,320,000) (-4,950,000 + 630,000)

Year 2

Net saving before Dep

870,000

(3,450,000) (-4,320,000 +870,000)

Year 3

Net saving before Dep

1,275,000

(2,175,000 ) (-3,450,000+ 1,275,000)

Year4

Net saving before Dep

1,725,000

(450,000) (-2,175,000 +1,725,000)

Year5

Net saving before Dep

1,815,000

1,365,000 ( -450,000+ 1,815,000)

Option 2 Payback period = 4 years, 3 months

The analysis above showed option 1 have a shorter pay back period and logic of using pay back period is that projects that can recoup their cost quickly are economically more attractive than those with longer payback(Antrill & Mclaney 2009) so Option 1 is to be selected based on pay period methods.

The major drawback o9f pay back period is that it ignore cash flow after the payback period and it does not take time value of money(Effect of inflation/ interest /risk etc) into consideration

NET PRESENT VALUE(NPV)

Net present value methods of appraisal consider all of the costs and benefits of each investment opportunity and make a logical allowance for the timing of those costs and benefits

The NPV is consider better among all other investment appraisal techniques because of cashflow timming recognition, uses of all relevant cash flow and meet the objective of the business which to increase owners’ wealth

LAGOS AIRPORT HOTEL USING NPV METHOD

OPTION1 -Restaurant Improvement

NPV

Option 2 – New Cinema & Casino centre

Time

Cash flow

N

NPV (12%)

Cash flow

N

NPV

Year0

(4,950,000)

(4,950,00)

(4,950,000)

(4,950,00)

Year1

1,200,000

0.8929

1,071,480

630,000

562,527

Year 2

1,290,000

0.7972

1,028,388

870,000

693,564

Year 3

1,320,000

0.7118

939,575

1,275,000

907,545

Year 4

1,230,000

0.6355

781,665

1,725,000

1,096,238

Year 5

615,000

0.5066

311,559

1,815,000

919,479

-817,333

-770,647

Here we must ask how can management decide which option or project is acceptable, judging by NPV decision which stated that

If the NPV is positive the project should be accepted, if it is negative the project should be rejected

If there are two (or more) competing projects/options that have positive NPVs, the project with higher (or highest) should be selected.

In this case of Lagos Airport hotel non of the two option is Negative and it should be rejected unless management has other non financial benefits attached with options which may still at long run contribute to the actualisation of the hotels strategic goals.

SECTION 6:

COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS

COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS

As usual for business environment in the hotel industry is a highly competitvive, and Lagos Hotels Limited found itself in a such competitive based marketing segment with more than 5000 operators in the market. Significantly the hotels has the followings 7 majors/ market leaders to complete with

Sheraton Hotels & Tower, Pretoria Hotels, Federal Palace Hotels, Lagos Hilton Hotel, Excellence Hotel, PVC Hotels and Reassurance Hotels

The core keys advantages of competitors in Comparism with Lagos airport range from their location advantage(Most of them located in Victoria and ikoyi areas of Lagos that accommodation the major businesses in Nigeria) International Operations advantage, 21st century well designed architectural building , modern facilities & luxury, Branding, high Price advantages, innovation program (Customer Loyalty Program) etc

The major advantages of Lagos airport is strategic location in the ikeja but with old building structures

Next to Lagos is Victoria Island, which takes while to get to, about 2hrs, this is because of the amount of traffic and chaos on the roads, also some of the roads are in a bit of a mess, pot holes that can swallow you without trace. Victoria island is modern, and the Hotel Eco is very good, but costs £250 GBP per night – note the Sheraton in Lagos is also modern and costs £300-350 per night, bottled water in the Eco was £4, but if you are spending £250 a night – who cares, you must keep drinking water in this heat. These hotels do cost more than a London Hotel, but then there is no where else decent apart from Lagos Airport Hotel. Note the Airport Hotel was £100 per night, I booked at the desk where ther is a written price sheet on the wall, you will have to put down a security deposit but you do get this back at the end of your stay.

SECTION 7: BALANCED SCORECARD

APPLICATION OF BALANCED SCORED CARD FRAMEWORK (A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS AIRPORT HOTEL)

Balanced scorecard as the name suggested offers a more balanced view of a firm’s or of a manager’s performance by intergrating both financial and non financial information in a coherent fashion .This overcomes one of the obvious defects of traditional performance measurement systems which places undue emphasis on historical financial information.

For long term – effective and efficient performance, especially in hotel enterprise, the information related to service quality, introduction of new products, service, additional supply, entrance on new market, the competitor performance and human capital relation management is vital.

Goardana & Mateja also empaciated the need for balanced score card application in hotel indsutry ” The hotel’s operations are oriented towards people and to that end their financial performance depends on the behaviour and manners of hotels employees, the development of new products and service and as the most important , guest satisfaction”

In Lagos airport hotel use it to implement strategies of a change/ restructing in management programme undergo in 2009

Apart from using it to create a link between the performance measurement indicators and hotel strategies, Management use it to communicate strategy to both managers and staff.

At operational level the Balance scored card are use to align employess efforts with those reuired for successful strategic implementation However, successful implementation of a balanced scorecard is not a trivial matters especially for hotels like Lagos Airport Hotels that is Government owned which make some top management appointment political in nature. Apart from this balanced scored concept is simple but it implementation is found to be time consuming and costly task especially to hotel like Lagos Airport with weak financial resources and manpower to support the practice of this new management concept in the longrun.

Table: Lagos Airport Hotel – Balanced scorecard

Hotel Management Balanced Scorecard

Managing the day to day activities of a hotel can be facilitated with the help of KPIs. KPIs, on a BSC are the means to attain the end of ‘Measuring Performance’. Such tool can be used when umpteen external and internal forces have a bearing on the organi

Perspective

Performance

Financial Perspective

53.63%

Customer Perspective

65.56%

Efficiency

29.67%

Staff perspective

65.78%

Total Performance

54.85%

Scorecard includes 4 categories, 17 indicators

Strategy tree and scorecard details :

Perspective

Goal

Weight

(x of 10)

Description

Performance

(%)

Measure

unit

Target

Values

Financial Perspective

3

53.63%

Wage Costs as a % of total sales

3

It refers to wage cost as a % of total sales of the hotel.

40%

%

0%

Annual operating profit per room

3

It refers to annual operating profit per room available in the hotel.

10000

$

25000

Food cost as a % of food sales

2

40%

%

0%

% increase in labor costs

2

20%

%

0%

Total Performance in group

 

Financial Perspective

53.63%

Customer Perspective

3

65.56%

Number of positive feedbacks

3

It refers to number of positive feedbacks received from the customers (on a scale of 1 to 10).

9

Score

10

Number of complaints received

2

It refers to number of complaints received from the customers regarding the services provided by hotel (on a scale of 1 to 10).

3

Score

10

Response rate

3

Metric is not available in trial version

1

minutes

1

Frequent customers as a % of total customers

2

Metric is not available in trial version

30%

%

100%

Total Performance in group

 

Customer Perspective

65.56%

Efficiency

2

29.67%

% of room booked through reservation channels

2

It refers to % of room booked through reservation channels maintained by the hotel.

25%

%

100%

Internet bookings

2

indicates the % of bookings received through internet services.

30%

%

100%

Room occupancy

2

Metric is not available in trial version

60%

%

100%

Rate of sales inquiry conversion

2

Metric is not available in trial version

30%

%

60%

Average length of stay

2

Metric is not available in trial version

2

days

4

Total Performance in group

 

Efficiency

29.67%

Staff perspective

2

65.78%

Staff turn

The Cultural Revolution Of The 1920s Sociology Essay

Morals and Manners are two sides of a coin; complementary, not conflicting. Moral beliefs encompass obligation, duty, responsibility and dignity of the individual, while manners include communal harmony, cultural understanding, tolerance, coexistence and respect of the individual. Ethics and etiquette comprise of a set of imperatives dictating social behavior. (Martin, P1)

A social statute for individual behavior and a yardstick to measure the doctrines of social virtue, rules and rituals of civilized society, etiquette was established well before the invention of law. As a development tool it precedes the teaching of moral precepts to children (Martin, P1)

America as an equal society has always understood and perpetuated the cause of the greater good and equality for all, where justice, truth and freedom prevail. (Coben, P5) A core of the American social foundation, these principals have remained intact through the centuries. (Fitzgerald, P5) However, with time, although these basic concepts have remained unaltered, a greater transparency has emerged in their lifestyles; their beliefs, attitudes, conduct, manners and morals.

The economic boom of the 1920s (or the Roaring 20s) established America as a prosperous country. (Himmelfarb, P3) While a wave of industrialization took the country and its people to an all time high peak, it also dented the well coiffed Victorianesque moral fabric of the society. (Fitzgerald, P8). There is a historical trajectory to indicate that with the cultural and social revolution manners and morals also slipped from the age of innocence to decadence.

This paper aims to explain that though the American peoples’ basic concept of morals from the 1920s have remained unchanged, society has accepted and is tolerant of a far liberal way of life. It also examines how the present American way of life is more transparent and unpretentious ‘true to self ‘, rather than masked behind hypocrisy, as in the past.

The Cultural Revolution of the 1920s

A watershed decade, the ‘roaring 20s’ was characterized by unparalleled growth of industrialization, the rise of a consumer-oriented economy and mass entertainment on one hand (Himmelfarb P3), and rebellion and reform on the other, thereby eclipsing the hitherto conservative way of life and thinking.

The old world of the Victorian order was defined by a dependable, self-controlled, conscientious and punctual character, respectful of others, pious and religious with strong family orientations (Coben, P10). The ensuing cultural and social and revolution of the 1920s led to inevitable conflict with the development of intelligentsia and the dissenting voices of blacks, feminists, sexual morality, urban ethics, the Ku Klux Klan and various economic and political groups(Coben, P15). The mass black exodus from the south, the introduction of Negro music – Jazz, and the path breaking novels of Ernest Hemingway and Sinclair Lewis aided the new cultural awakening (Coben, P15). The decade launched a revolution in morals and manners that is still evolving today. (Fitzgerald, P10).

The growing independence of women in this scenario is considered as the most important contribution to the acceleration of revolution (Himmelfarb, P5). Their growing independence from housework, made light by modern amenities from vacuum cleaners to washing machines and canned food, was slowly emancipating her from a shackled routine. They went a step further, bypassing socially suited jobs to opt for careers in male established bastions like advertising, real estate, management. Another conspicuous sign was the immense change in appearance. No longer shackled by corsets, they slowly established their own identity. The earlier established Victorian and puritan images were beating a reluctant retreat (Himmelfarb, P6). Economic independence, led to growing of self confidence and the ability to lead her ‘own life’. On the downside, marriages and family life began to bear the brunt of this growing independence. (Himmelfarb, P6). This new independence was viewed as outrageously immoral as women were considered the guardians of morality and were expected to act accordingly, (Caldwell, P12). (Himmelfarb, P12). It was the start of a revolution that in the following decades was to see women hold equal status to men.

A change in women’s status sparked a shift in the perspective on family life and parenting styles. The family, as a vessel through which morals and values are passed down, was slowly being dethroned (Himmelfarb, P15). As women spent more time outside the home, children were left to their own resources, with television and technology replacing parents as role models, causing confusion and inconsistency of behavior (Caldwell, P13).This evolution modified the tone of children’s relations with adults. (Caldwell, P14). In fact in the1920s, youth were being given an equal footing as adults, able to voice their opinions. This also changed the equation in sexes. Children were allowed to mix freely, albeit with chaperons.

Perceived as idyllic the pre-`1920s was far from so. (Caldwell, P6) It was in fact riddled with social and class prejudices. The rebellion naturally shook the moral spine of this conservative but hypocritical society. (Fitzgerald, 10) The earlier generation had built up habits of conformity, but soon after the war in 1919, disillusion was soon to follow, even with the middle generation, who began to question everything that was established as true and worthy of respect.

Present times and the moral decline

It seems that the very reasons and contradictions that triggered the 1920s rebellion have come to haunt them again (Coben, P18). From rigid conservatism to an over-indulgent society America has come full circle. It has apparently adopted a philosophy of ‘anything goes as long as it is honest’ (Essling, P2). Reviewing the history of etiquette in the USA, Mark Caldwell observes that America is troubled by its brash, rude and uncivil state of manners and yet people question whether good manners and moral behavior can be held supreme above such matters as war, murder, abortion and euthanasia.

Mark Caldwell in his book affirms

”Americans have undergone periodic anxiety attacks over their manners since the dawn of the Republic. Some Americans have believed that other Americans were rude, even when most of us were trying to be polite. There’s no reason to think that present-day manners are any worse than manners used to be”.

Most scholars agree that the changing body language of American culture is far from civil, (Fitzgerald, 10) but it is definitely unpretentious, unlike the Victorian era which shielded its wrongdoings behind a civil façade.

Criticizing the moral mores of children and youth today Mark Caldwell points to the fact that most grow up with no respect for authority, for family, others or even themselves. Living an immoral life is considered normal. What has resulted, Caldwell feels, is a whole generation of morally unstable youth involved in crime, violence, drug abuse, unwanted pregnancies and a feeling of emptiness. (Campbell P1)Their freedom actually translates into slavery to an amoral lifestyle.

While Americans are amongst the most patriotic, philanthropic, populist and litigious, (Hanson, P1) they also hold the highest ratings for crime, divorce, poverty rate, unequal income, the longest working hours amongst other issues.

There is an aura of disillusionment with the new found freedom. If they are ill-mannered, they are also discontented. (Fitzgerald, 12) The old order did indeed have a set of values which gave life its meaning and substance. With this morality dethroned, the void is hard to fill. (Caldwell, 10) A new revolution is indeed happening; one in which they want to rid themselves of obsessions with sex, money and self-centeredness to be able to live gracefully by fusing a harmonious combination of the old and the new.

Is it really a death of moral character?

American moral poverty is real, as scores of scholars, journalists, politicians and others have observed and documented through the decades (Hunter, 12). Hunter argues that perhaps it is not the absence of morality, but the fact that morality in modern America has been reduced to a mere platitude devoid of meaning. Disassociated from its essential social, historical and cultural moorings, it becomes void, negating its essence.

However, (Baker, P1) explains that contrary to popular notions of an impoverished American morality, it should be understood in the context that

“Americans are unusual in that they cherish traditional values as well as high degree of self-expression”.

The nation’s cultural heritage is well entrenched in its tradition, offsetting any effects of overriding economic progress. Most Americans hold sacred the traditional values of the country established 200 years ago; religion, family values, moral authority and patriotism (Baker, 2) Americans have always been moral absolutists, a stance that has grown through the years. Environmental concerns, demand for equality, search for the meaning and purpose of life, beyond the mundane constitute some of their self expression values.

Conclusion

The Roaring 20s was a watershed decade, upsetting the established Victorian order and setting a new one (Coben, P10). Rapid industrialization, consumer-oriented society, mass entertainment along with growing intelligentsia, feminist movement, immigration, race, alcohol, various economic and political groups were to trigger the famous 20s cultural rebellion (Caldwell, P8) This offset a revolution in manners and morals of the country, eclipsing the genteel, though hypocritical behavior of the Victorian era.

The most significantly change was on the feminist front ( Himmelfarb, P3). In the changing scenario, women were able to break free of their shackles and live life on their terms. This new found freedom caused a shift and perhaps a rift in the family perspective. (Essling, P2) The fallout in family life, marriages and children was a direct impact of this new found independence. Children were also hauled from the shadows to participate more actively in their upbringing. (Campbell, P1) In the absence of parental guidance and often left to their own resources, there was a shift in the role models and behavior patterns as viewed on the TV and other media and the emergence of a new, self-centered and amoral generation (Campbell, P1).

Although the American morals of liberty justice for all freedom, with an emphasis on religion, family, moral authority and patriotism have remained intact from the 1920s, (Caldwell, 10) America has experienced a growing moral decadence since then. Today’s America is a free-wheeling liberal country where morals and manners have taken a back seat, but perhaps unlike the 1920s, it is unpretentious and true to self.

Works Cited

Baker, W. E, “America’s Crisis of Values: Reality and Perception”, Princeton University Press; illustrated edition. 2004.

Caldwell, M, A Short History of Rudeness: Manners, Morals, and Misbehavior in Modern America, Picador USA; 1st edition, 1999.

Campbell, J. C., “Manners and Morals of today’s Children and Teens”, Helium society & Lifestyle, morals, values and norms, 2010.

Coben, S., Rebellion against Victorianism: The Impetus for Cultural Change in 1920s America, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1991.

Essling, M., Values and morals in American society: The 1950s versus Today Helium Society & Lifestyle -morals, values and norms, 2009.

Fitzgerald, F.S., The Great Gatsby, Scribner; Reissue edition, 1999.

Fitzgerald, F.S., This Side of Paradise, Scribner; annotated edition, 1998.

Hanson, R., Why is the USA different, 2010, www.overcomingbias.com, 23, Sep 2010.

Himmelfarb, G., The De-moralization of Society: from Victorian Virtues to Modern Values, Vintage; 1st Vintage Books Ed, 1996.

Hunter, J. D., The Death of Character: On the Moral Education of America’s Children, New York: Basic Books, 2001.

Martin, J., First Things, The World’s Oldest Virtue, 1993, pp, 22-25, www.leaderu.com/ftissues/ft9305/articles/martin.html, 23 Sep, 2010.

Morals and Manners are two sides of a coin; complementary, not conflicting. Moral beliefs encompass obligation, duty, responsibility and dignity of the individual, while manners include communal harmony, cultural understanding, tolerance, coexistence and respect of the individual. Ethics and etiquette comprise of a set of imperatives dictating social behavior. (Martin, P1)

A social statute for individual behavior and a yardstick to measure the doctrines of social virtue, rules and rituals of civilized society, etiquette was established well before the invention of law. As a development tool it precedes the teaching of moral precepts to children (Martin, P1)

America as an equal society has always understood and perpetuated the cause of the greater good and equality for all, where justice, truth and freedom prevail. (Coben, P5) A core of the American social foundation, these principals have remained intact through the centuries. (Fitzgerald, P5) However, with time, although these basic concepts have remained unaltered, a greater transparency has emerged in their lifestyles; their beliefs, attitudes, conduct, manners and morals.

The economic boom of the 1920s (or the Roaring 20s) established America as a prosperous country. (Himmelfarb, P3) While a wave of industrialization took the country and its people to an all time high peak, it also dented the well coiffed Victorianesque moral fabric of the society. (Fitzgerald, P8). There is a historical trajectory to indicate that with the cultural and social revolution manners and morals also slipped from the age of innocence to decadence.

This paper aims to explain that though the American peoples’ basic concept of morals from the 1920s have remained unchanged, society has accepted and is tolerant of a far liberal way of life. It also examines how the present American way of life is more transparent and unpretentious ‘true to self ‘, rather than masked behind hypocrisy, as in the past.

The Cultural Revolution of the 1920s

A watershed decade, the ‘roaring 20s’ was characterized by unparalleled growth of industrialization, the rise of a consumer-oriented economy and mass entertainment on one hand (Himmelfarb P3), and rebellion and reform on the other, thereby eclipsing the hitherto conservative way of life and thinking.

The old world of the Victorian order was defined by a dependable, self-controlled, conscientious and punctual character, respectful of others, pious and religious with strong family orientations (Coben, P10). The ensuing cultural and social and revolution of the 1920s led to inevitable conflict with the development of intelligentsia and the dissenting voices of blacks, feminists, sexual morality, urban ethics, the Ku Klux Klan and various economic and political groups(Coben, P15). The mass black exodus from the south, the introduction of Negro music – Jazz, and the path breaking novels of Ernest Hemingway and Sinclair Lewis aided the new cultural awakening (Coben, P15). The decade launched a revolution in morals and manners that is still evolving today. (Fitzgerald, P10).

The growing independence of women in this scenario is considered as the most important contribution to the acceleration of revolution (Himmelfarb, P5). Their growing independence from housework, made light by modern amenities from vacuum cleaners to washing machines and canned food, was slowly emancipating her from a shackled routine. They went a step further, bypassing socially suited jobs to opt for careers in male established bastions like advertising, real estate, management. Another conspicuous sign was the immense change in appearance. No longer shackled by corsets, they slowly established their own identity. The earlier established Victorian and puritan images were beating a reluctant retreat (Himmelfarb, P6). Economic independence, led to growing of self confidence and the ability to lead her ‘own life’. On the downside, marriages and family life began to bear the brunt of this growing independence. (Himmelfarb, P6). This new independence was viewed as outrageously immoral as women were considered the guardians of morality and were expected to act accordingly, (Caldwell, P12). (Himmelfarb, P12). It was the start of a revolution that in the following decades was to see women hold equal status to men.

A change in women’s status sparked a shift in the perspective on family life and parenting styles. The family, as a vessel through which morals and values are passed down, was slowly being dethroned (Himmelfarb, P15). As women spent more time outside the home, children were left to their own resources, with television and technology replacing parents as role models, causing confusion and inconsistency of behavior (Caldwell, P13).This evolution modified the tone of children’s relations with adults. (Caldwell, P14). In fact in the1920s, youth were being given an equal footing as adults, able to voice their opinions. This also changed the equation in sexes. Children were allowed to mix freely, albeit with chaperons.

Perceived as idyllic the pre-`1920s was far from so. (Caldwell, P6) It was in fact riddled with social and class prejudices. The rebellion naturally shook the moral spine of this conservative but hypocritical society. (Fitzgerald, 10) The earlier generation had built up habits of conformity, but soon after the war in 1919, disillusion was soon to follow, even with the middle generation, who began to question everything that was established as true and worthy of respect.

Present times and the moral decline

It seems that the very reasons and contradictions that triggered the 1920s rebellion have come to haunt them again (Coben, P18). From rigid conservatism to an over-indulgent society America has come full circle. It has apparently adopted a philosophy of ‘anything goes as long as it is honest’ (Essling, P2). Reviewing the history of etiquette in the USA, Mark Caldwell observes that America is troubled by its brash, rude and uncivil state of manners and yet people question whether good manners and moral behavior can be held supreme above such matters as war, murder, abortion and euthanasia.

Mark Caldwell in his book affirms

”Americans have undergone periodic anxiety attacks over their manners since the dawn of the Republic. Some Americans have believed that other Americans were rude, even when most of us were trying to be polite. There’s no reason to think that present-day manners are any worse than manners used to be”.

Most scholars agree that the changing body language of American culture is far from civil, (Fitzgerald, 10) but it is definitely unpretentious, unlike the Victorian era which shielded its wrongdoings behind a civil façade.

Criticizing the moral mores of children and youth today Mark Caldwell points to the fact that most grow up with no respect for authority, for family, others or even themselves. Living an immoral life is considered normal. What has resulted, Caldwell feels, is a whole generation of morally unstable youth involved in crime, violence, drug abuse, unwanted pregnancies and a feeling of emptiness. (Campbell P1)Their freedom actually translates into slavery to an amoral lifestyle.

While Americans are amongst the most patriotic, philanthropic, populist and litigious, (Hanson, P1) they also hold the highest ratings for crime, divorce, poverty rate, unequal income, the longest working hours amongst other issues.

There is an aura of disillusionment with the new found freedom. If they are ill-mannered, they are also discontented. (Fitzgerald, 12) The old order did indeed have a set of values which gave life its meaning and substance. With this morality dethroned, the void is hard to fill. (Caldwell, 10) A new revolution is indeed happening; one in which they want to rid themselves of obsessions with sex, money and self-centeredness to be able to live gracefully by fusing a harmonious combination of the old and the new.

Is it really a death of moral character?

American moral poverty is real, as scores of scholars, journalists, politicians and others have observed and documented through the decades (Hunter, 12). Hunter argues that perhaps it is not the absence of morality, but the fact that morality in modern America has been reduced to a mere platitude devoid of meaning. Disassociated from its essential social, historical and cultural moorings, it becomes void, negating its essence.

However, (Baker, P1) explains that contrary to popular notions of an impoverished American morality, it should be understood in the context that

“Americans are unusual in that they cherish traditional values as well as high degree of self-expression”.

The nation’s cultural heritage is well entrenched in its tradition, offsetting any effects of overriding economic progress. Most Americans hold sacred the traditional values of the country established 200 years ago; religion, family values, moral authority and patriotism (Baker, 2) Americans have always been moral absolutists, a stance that has grown through the years. Environmental concerns, demand for equality, search for the meaning and purpose of life, beyond the mundane constitute some of their self expression values.

Conclusion

The Roaring 20s was a watershed decade, upsetting the established Victorian order and setting a new one (Coben, P10). Rapid industrialization, consumer-oriented society, mass entertainment along with growing intelligentsia, feminist movement, immigration, race, alcohol, various economic and political groups were to trigger the famous 20s cultural rebellion (Caldwell, P8) This offset a revolution in manners and morals of the country, eclipsing the genteel, though hypocritical behavior of the Victorian era.

The most significantly change was on the feminist front ( Himmelfarb, P3). In the changing scenario, women were able to break free of their shackles and live life on their terms. This new found freedom caused a shift and perhaps a rift in the family perspective. (Essling, P2) The fallout in family life, marriages and children was a direct impact of this new found independence. Children were also hauled from the shadows to participate more actively in their upbringing. (Campbell, P1) In the absence of parental guidance and often left to their own resources, there was a shift in the role models and behavior patterns as viewed on the TV and other media and the emergence of a new, self-centered and amoral generation (Campbell, P1).

Although the American morals of liberty justice for all freedom, with an emphasis on religion, family, moral authority and patriotism have remained intact from the 1920s, (Caldwell, 10) America has experienced a growing moral decadence since then. Today’s America is a free-wheeling liberal country where morals and manners have taken a back seat, but perhaps unlike the 1920s, it is unpretentious and true to self.

Works Cited

Baker, W. E, “America’s Crisis of Values: Reality and Perception”, Princeton University Press; illustrated edition. 2004.

Caldwell, M, A Short History of Rudeness: Manners, Morals, and Misbehavior in Modern America, Picador USA; 1st edition, 1999.

Campbell, J. C., “Manners and Morals of today’s Children and Teens”, Helium society & Lifestyle, morals, values and norms, 2010.

Coben, S., Rebellion against Victorianism: The Impetus for Cultural Change in 1920s America, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1991.

Essling, M., Values and morals in American society: The 1950s versus Today Helium Society & Lifestyle -morals, values and norms, 2009.

Fitzgerald, F.S., The Great Gatsby, Scribner; Reissue edition, 1999.

Fitzgerald, F.S., This Side of Paradise, Scribner; annotated edition, 1998.

Hanson, R., Why is the USA different, 2010, www.overcomingbias.com, 23, Sep 2010.

Himmelfarb, G., The De-moralization of Society: from Victorian Virtues to Modern Values, Vintage; 1st Vintage Books Ed, 1996.

Hunter, J. D., The Death of Character: On the Moral Education of America’s Children, New York: Basic Books, 2001.

Martin, J., First Things, The World’s Oldest Virtue, 1993, pp, 22-25, www.leaderu.com/ftissues/ft9305/articles/martin.html, 23 Sep, 2010.

The Second World War Sociology Essay

The traditional family, also known as a nuclear family, dominates the society before the World War II. It is a social unit consisting of a pair of married couple in opposite gender and the children they born living together in a single place (Hughes and Fergusson, 2004, p.47). However, a modern family is difficult to be defined because there are diverse forms of family consisting, for example, single parent family and divorced family, they may consisting a pair of couple in same gender or a single parent who had divorced with their partners. Conservatives can be defined as an ideology of that the structure or the form of family should be remain unchanged and conserved (Hughes and Fergusson, 2004, p60); while feminism is a thinking started from the 1960s of equality which against the traditional UK family and the conservatives.

Firstly, the gender roles had been change in the recent decades because of the war and had been affect the UK family structure. Before the World War II, men were recognized as the breadwinner and the women should responsible for the house and the children (Hughes and Fergusson, 2004, p.44). The statement shows that the general role of men were to work and were to connect with the external world for supporting the finance of the house and their partners, also they owned the authority for deciding and controlling; while women should stay indoor for serving the needs of husband and the elderly parents, also taking care and rising up children. The turning point is, during the war, men needed to fight in the frontline and left out from their work. Consequently, women needed to bear the workload not only in the military industry for the weapons used in the war but also the general posts in the society, even in the government. This show the gender roles started to be change and an ideology of “women can also work” and gender equality had been raise up due to this situation, which is an example of feminism. Women started to fight for economic independent and work outside by setting up organizations, for example Government Equalities Offices (2007) which responsible for leading and giving advice for forms of equality including gender equality, and demonstrating, the structure of the UK family had been change, women not only stay indoors but also go to work, not depending on men. Also, the responsibility of taking care children and elderly parents of women can interfere with paid employment and giving financial transfer respectively, (Harper, 2004) this allows more time and less housing burden to women for work, women are not necessary for staying in the house, the value of women responsibility also changed.

Secondly, the attitude of marriage had been change, the ideology of “marriage is for life” changed to late-marrying and divorcing. Office for National Statistic (2010) reported that, the number of marriage in the UK keep decreasing from 1950s, while the number of divorce and lone parents with dependent children in the UK keep increasing (ibid, 2012). In addition, number of co-habitation in UK was increase rapidly from the 1980s. (ibid, 2011) Furthermore, the sexual relation changed in the society, sex outside was now become more acceptable than in the golden age. For example, “Births outside marriage become a third of all births by the early 1990s” (Halsey, 1995). This illustrates that the attitude to marriage in the UK is not as important and necessary, compared to the golden age. Couples can easily divorce or remarriage and can keep not marrying by co-habitation which all these are affecting the fertility, childcare and child development, also the structure of the family (Harper, 2004). The thinking of the human right had been raise up: both men and women can divorce if they want and say out their wants, the example of feminism. It is not a must that a family should consist of married couples and children, but the form they want to have.

Finally, same-sex couples are recognised from the last decade but it is not a case in the golden age. In 2004 (BBC News), a law about civil partnership had been legislated, it opened the way of same-sex marriage and civil partnership no matter gay or lesbian marriage. Also, there is a first history of two men can be named as parents on a child’s birth certificate in April 2010. These politic activities changed the form and the structure of the UK family: it is not a must that parents in a family should be in opposite gender but in a same sex, same-sex couples had been given a chance to get the same right with married couples under the bill. According the report from the Office for National Statistics (2011), although majority of the British think same-sex relationship is always wrong in the 1990s, it totally changed after the bill had been legislated. This shows the ideology of feminism had changed the attitude of marriage: people have the right to choose who they loved with no gender barriers. Furthermore, the welfare, for example education, was provided to both men and women. Before the war, the role of housewife was taken by women because they could not receive education, this limited the chance of women for working outside due to they had no “knowledge”. According to the report from Office for National Statistics (2008), more men received education in the age of sixteenth to eighteenth than women in 1985. But there was a change, there was the same number of the gender receiving education in 1997 and there are more women enjoy education welfare than men in the recent decades. This shows the change of value and the example of feminism: both men and women can enjoy the welfare provided by the government, and widened the chance of women work outside, which is a cause of changing in the family.

However, there is still continuity in the family. Firstly, although women had the independence of their own economy and the right to go for work, men is still the head and has the main authority in the house; women are still responsible to the house works. A national survey done by Harris in 1984 (cited in Halsey, 1995) shows that, half of the adult proportion agreed that “The man in the house should be the main breadwinner, and the woman should be mainly responsible for looking after the home and children, even she works”. In addition, according to survey done by Office for National Statistic (2011), the proportions of part-time employees of women were significantly higher than the number of the men. These supported that although there is seems a change in the gender role, men are still dominating the house and the main responsibility of women did not change significantly in the UK family, they still emphasis on the house, and the shows the concept of conservatives.

Secondly, although there are diverse forms of family consisting in the UK, families are an important institution in society. No matter there are nuclear family; single parent family; or divorced family, and the existence of the family is still important and it is conserved due to the thinking of conservatives. Furthermore, although same-sex couple had been introducing in the family, the role of them are still being not change: maintain the stability in the house and support their life. These have not been change and being conserved.

To conclude this essay, the conservatives and feminism are the reason of bringing continuity and changes respectively, these ideology have brought the continuity and changes to the UK family. Families are necessary for ordering the stability of the society no matter the time after the war or as peace as now. Although the nuclear family had been weakened, it still dominates the structure of the family and plays an important role in the society. Changes are necessary and important, but it must change in a natural and slowly way, otherwise it will bring chaos to the society and cannot reach the aim of stabling to UK. The society, on the second hand, should conserve the important thinking and cultural, but could not have absolutely no changes in the society, or the society may not get any improvement.

More sentences about ‘this is because of the thinking of feminism’ (Explanation)

The traditional family, also known as a nuclear family, dominates the society before the World War II. It is a social unit consisting of a pair of married couple in opposite gender and the children they born living together in a single place (Hughes and Fergusson, 2004, p.47). However, a modern family is difficult to be defined because there are diverse forms of family consisting, for example, single parent family and divorced family, they may consisting a pair of couple in same gender or a single parent who had divorced with their partners. Conservatives can be defined as an ideology of that the structure or the form of family should be remain unchanged and conserved (Hughes and Fergusson, 2004, p60); while feminism is a thinking started from the 1960s of equality which against the traditional UK family and the conservatives.

Firstly, the gender roles had been change in the recent decades because of the war and had been affect the UK family structure. Before the World War II, men were recognized as the breadwinner and the women should responsible for the house and the children (Hughes and Fergusson, 2004, p.44). The statement shows that the general role of men were to work and were to connect with the external world for supporting the finance of the house and their partners, also they owned the authority for deciding and controlling; while women should stay indoor for serving the needs of husband and the elderly parents, also taking care and rising up children. The turning point is, during the war, men needed to fight in the frontline and left out from their work. Consequently, women needed to bear the workload not only in the military industry for the weapons used in the war but also the general posts in the society, even in the government. This show the gender roles started to be change and an ideology of “women can also work” and gender equality had been raise up due to this situation, which is an example of feminism. Women started to fight for economic independent and work outside by setting up organizations, for example Government Equalities Offices (2007) which responsible for leading and giving advice for forms of equality including gender equality, and demonstrating, the structure of the UK family had been change, women not only stay indoors but also go to work, not depending on men. Also, the responsibility of taking care children and elderly parents of women can interfere with paid employment and giving financial transfer respectively, (Harper, 2004) this allows more time and less housing burden to women for work, women are not necessary for staying in the house, the value of women responsibility also changed.

Secondly, the attitude of marriage had been change, the ideology of “marriage is for life” changed to late-marrying and divorcing. Office for National Statistic (2010) reported that, the number of marriage in the UK keep decreasing from 1950s, while the number of divorce and lone parents with dependent children in the UK keep increasing (ibid, 2012). In addition, number of co-habitation in UK was increase rapidly from the 1980s. (ibid, 2011) Furthermore, the sexual relation changed in the society, sex outside was now become more acceptable than in the golden age. For example, “Births outside marriage become a third of all births by the early 1990s” (Halsey, 1995). This illustrates that the attitude to marriage in the UK is not as important and necessary, compared to the golden age. Couples can easily divorce or remarriage and can keep not marrying by co-habitation which all these are affecting the fertility, childcare and child development, also the structure of the family (Harper, 2004). The thinking of the human right had been raise up: both men and women can divorce if they want and say out their wants, the example of feminism. It is not a must that a family should consist of married couples and children, but the form they want to have.

Finally, same-sex couples are recognised from the last decade but it is not a case in the golden age. In 2004 (BBC News), a law about civil partnership had been legislated, it opened the way of same-sex marriage and civil partnership no matter gay or lesbian marriage. Also, there is a first history of two men can be named as parents on a child’s birth certificate in April 2010. These politic activities changed the form and the structure of the UK family: it is not a must that parents in a family should be in opposite gender but in a same sex, same-sex couples had been given a chance to get the same right with married couples under the bill. According the report from the Office for National Statistics (2011), although majority of the British think same-sex relationship is always wrong in the 1990s, it totally changed after the bill had been legislated. This shows the ideology of feminism had changed the attitude of marriage: people have the right to choose who they loved with no gender barriers. Furthermore, the welfare, for example education, was provided to both men and women. Before the war, the role of housewife was taken by women because they could not receive education, this limited the chance of women for working outside due to they had no “knowledge”. According to the report from Office for National Statistics (2008), more men received education in the age of sixteenth to eighteenth than women in 1985. But there was a change, there was the same number of the gender receiving education in 1997 and there are more women enjoy education welfare than men in the recent decades. This shows the change of value and the example of feminism: both men and women can enjoy the welfare provided by the government, and widened the chance of women work outside, which is a cause of changing in the family.

However, there is still continuity in the family. Firstly, although women had the independence of their own economy and the right to go for work, men is still the head and has the main authority in the house; women are still responsible to the house works. A national survey done by Harris in 1984 (cited in Halsey, 1995) shows that, half of the adult proportion agreed that “The man in the house should be the main breadwinner, and the woman should be mainly responsible for looking after the home and children, even she works”. In addition, according to survey done by Office for National Statistic (2011), the proportions of part-time employees of women were significantly higher than the number of the men. These supported that although there is seems a change in the gender role, men are still dominating the house and the main responsibility of women did not change significantly in the UK family, they still emphasis on the house, and the shows the concept of conservatives.

Secondly, although there are diverse forms of family consisting in the UK, families are an important institution in society. No matter there are nuclear family; single parent family; or divorced family, and the existence of the family is still important and it is conserved due to the thinking of conservatives. Furthermore, although same-sex couple had been introducing in the family, the role of them are still being not change: maintain the stability in the house and support their life. These have not been change and being conserved.

To conclude this essay, the conservatives and feminism are the reason of bringing continuity and changes respectively, these ideology have brought the continuity and changes to the UK family. Families are necessary for ordering the stability of the society no matter the time after the war or as peace as now. Although the nuclear family had been weakened, it still dominates the structure of the family and plays an important role in the society. Changes are necessary and important, but it must change in a natural and slowly way, otherwise it will bring chaos to the society and cannot reach the aim of stabling to UK. The society, on the second hand, should conserve the important thinking and cultural, but could not have absolutely no changes in the society, or the society may not get any improvement.

More sentences about ‘this is because of the thinking of feminism’ (Explanation)

The Language And Gender Sociology Essay

Language, gender and society are three complex and closely interwoven terms that I will attempt to explore in this chapter. The question of whether language reflects or shapes the social life and consequently gender relationships and expectations is a central one which I will also attempt to tackle. In other words, is it language which transmits gender thoughts, beliefs and actions? Or, conversely, does language determine men and women’s relationships and behavior? Is it possible to define language as a naïve mirror translating the social and cultural reality? Or it is the norms, traditions and values that introduce a basis for the creation of any language? Does society define women and men’s language, choices and action?

Or it is simply the interaction between language and society which gives birth to gender stereotypes and sexist language? The answer to these questions will help us understand how men and women’s space, speech, perspectives and choices are both determined and reflected by language.

There are so many questions that I would like to answer and examine in this chapter, but will not be able to answer them all. Instead, I will try to highlight some important notions related to the subject. For example how do the socio-cultural factors interact with language in order to determine men and women’s relationships in society? Why and how is gender deemed to be an important and powerful component in social interaction? How does its influence go beyond people’s thoughts, attitudes and beliefs? How can society explain the learning and maintenance of gender?

How is gender negotiated in language and across cultures? How does the social construction of society shape women and men’s personalities in terms of social roles, expectations, language choice, traditional beliefs and so on?

The aim of my work will basically be to explore the importance of both language and society in determining and reinforcing female and male differences in speech (form and content), beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. The emphasis will be on how gender is negotiated and represented in language and society, and how the linguistic form may reflect and shape the social and cultural conditions under which women and men live.

Language, a product of society, is considered to play a significant role in human interaction; “the human being, language and society are an interwoven texture.” (Bennouiss, 2001:20). Accordingly, society is conceived to be the mold which shapes people through determining not only their behavior, but also their identity.

Society controls individuals through gendered practices, which are defined as a social process “created and renegotiated in interpersonal relationships and encouraged and maintained through social interaction” (Weatherall, 2002: 85). Therefore, gender is considered to be social because it connotes “all the complex attributes ascribed by culture (s) to human females and males” (Lott & Maluso, 1993: 99). One may conclude from the two quotes that gender is used by society as a basis or a support to the socialization of both females and males, and is also maintained by social and cultural forces.

Gender issues and stereotypes seem to be universal. They are heavily rooted in history and through the social and cultural life, which has a strong influence in defining the individual’s identity, behavior, role and occupation. All societies consist of men and women who use language in the interaction of everyday life, and develop ideas and thoughts about how women and men should think and act in relation to social norms.

Therefore, it is believed that gender is socially constructed and is reinforced by cultural forces; however, gender contents may differ across cultures. Beall (1993: 131-132) argues that across cultures, “one’s biological sex does not necessarily imply that one will engage in certain activities or that people will believe that one possesses certain attributes”. She goes on to say that “some cultures perceive more than one gender, and cultures vary in their beliefs about the nature of males and females” (1993: 134).

This means that cultures are rich and curiously different from each other. Women’s beliefs and actions in Morocco are different from women’s thoughts and behavior in England, even if sometimes it seems that British women are not so different from the Moroccan unveiled women in physical appearance. However, there are many variations concerning their ways of thinking and acting. In the Muslim society, boys are given more independence and freedom, and are expected to achieve or occupy different roles and positions. The difference between the two sexes in terms of appearance, behavior, role, and occupation is very much strengthened and encouraged by the traditions, the customs and the habits of the Moroccan society, whereas in the British context, norms and traditions are transgressed, and modern ideologies present men and women as equals in all life spheres.

Besides, the authority or dominance of one gender over another is not practiced openly anymore. In other words, “the strength and activity differences between the male and female stereotypes are greater in socioeconomically less developed countries than in more developed countries”. It also tends to be greater in “countries where literacy is low and the percentage of women attending the university is low” (Best & Williams, 1993: 227) although in many cases, the education people receive in school and universities does not mean that they are not influenced by gender stereotypes.

In short, there is a lot to be said about the universality of gender prejudice. Class, education, religion and geography all play a part in determining subtle differences and peculiarities, some of which this work aims at revealing.

First, some claims:

1) Men interrupt women more than vice versa.

2) Women are more communicative than men.

3) Men do not give verbal recognition of the contributions in the conversation made by women.

4) Men curse more than women.

5) Women gossip more than men.

6) Women talk more with one another than men do.

7) Men speak more comfortably in public than women.

Gender and sex

Sex: a biological condition, i.e. defined as a set of physical characteristics

Gender: a social construct (within the fields of cultural and gender studies, and the social sciences)

“Today a return to separate single-sex schools may hasten the revival of separate gender roles”

– Wendy Kaminer, in The Atlantic Monthly (1998)

General usage of the term gender began in the late 1960s and 1970s, increasingly appearing in the professional literature of the social sciences.

The term helps in distinguishing those aspects of life that were more easily attributed or understood to be of social rather than biological origin (see e.g., Unger & Crawford, 1992).

Linguistic origins of Gender

According to Aristotle, the Greek philosopher Protagoras used the terms masculine, feminine, and neuter to classify nouns, introducing the concept of grammatical gender.

Many languages specify Gender (and gender agreement)

(1) Greek

o andras i gyneka to pedhi

the.masc. man the.fem. woman the.ntr. child

(2) German

der man die Frau das Kind

the.masc. man the.fem. woman the.ntr. child

(3) French

l(e) homme la femme

the.masc. man the.fem. woman

† Indoeuropean had gender distinction; Swahili has 16 gender distinctions. And many others don’t! (e.g. English, Astronesian languages)

But gender appears on pronouns:

(1) He left.

(2) She left.

(3) It left. (what types of things does “it” refer to?)

Gender correlates with other perceptual (and possibly grammatical) categories like humanness, agentivity, and animacy.

Language, gender and society are three complex and closely interwoven terms that I will attempt to explore in this chapter. The question of whether language reflects or shapes the social life and consequently gender relationships and expectations is a central one which I will also attempt to tackle. In other words, is it language which transmits gender thoughts, beliefs and actions? Or, conversely, does language determine men and women’s relationships and behavior? Is it possible to define language as a naïve mirror translating the social and cultural reality? Or it is the norms, traditions and values that introduce a basis for the creation of any language? Does society define women and men’s language, choices and action?

Or it is simply the interaction between language and society which gives birth to gender stereotypes and sexist language? The answer to these questions will help us understand how men and women’s space, speech, perspectives and choices are both determined and reflected by language.

There are so many questions that I would like to answer and examine in this chapter, but will not be able to answer them all. Instead, I will try to highlight some important notions related to the subject. For example how do the socio-cultural factors interact with language in order to determine men and women’s relationships in society? Why and how is gender deemed to be an important and powerful component in social interaction? How does its influence go beyond people’s thoughts, attitudes and beliefs? How can society explain the learning and maintenance of gender?

How is gender negotiated in language and across cultures? How does the social construction of society shape women and men’s personalities in terms of social roles, expectations, language choice, traditional beliefs and so on?

The aim of my work will basically be to explore the importance of both language and society in determining and reinforcing female and male differences in speech (form and content), beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. The emphasis will be on how gender is negotiated and represented in language and society, and how the linguistic form may reflect and shape the social and cultural conditions under which women and men live.

Language, a product of society, is considered to play a significant role in human interaction; “the human being, language and society are an interwoven texture.” (Bennouiss, 2001:20). Accordingly, society is conceived to be the mold which shapes people through determining not only their behavior, but also their identity.

Society controls individuals through gendered practices, which are defined as a social process “created and renegotiated in interpersonal relationships and encouraged and maintained through social interaction” (Weatherall, 2002: 85). Therefore, gender is considered to be social because it connotes “all the complex attributes ascribed by culture (s) to human females and males” (Lott & Maluso, 1993: 99). One may conclude from the two quotes that gender is used by society as a basis or a support to the socialization of both females and males, and is also maintained by social and cultural forces.

Gender issues and stereotypes seem to be universal. They are heavily rooted in history and through the social and cultural life, which has a strong influence in defining the individual’s identity, behavior, role and occupation. All societies consist of men and women who use language in the interaction of everyday life, and develop ideas and thoughts about how women and men should think and act in relation to social norms.

Therefore, it is believed that gender is socially constructed and is reinforced by cultural forces; however, gender contents may differ across cultures. Beall (1993: 131-132) argues that across cultures, “one’s biological sex does not necessarily imply that one will engage in certain activities or that people will believe that one possesses certain attributes”. She goes on to say that “some cultures perceive more than one gender, and cultures vary in their beliefs about the nature of males and females” (1993: 134).

This means that cultures are rich and curiously different from each other. Women’s beliefs and actions in Morocco are different from women’s thoughts and behavior in England, even if sometimes it seems that British women are not so different from the Moroccan unveiled women in physical appearance. However, there are many variations concerning their ways of thinking and acting. In the Muslim society, boys are given more independence and freedom, and are expected to achieve or occupy different roles and positions. The difference between the two sexes in terms of appearance, behavior, role, and occupation is very much strengthened and encouraged by the traditions, the customs and the habits of the Moroccan society, whereas in the British context, norms and traditions are transgressed, and modern ideologies present men and women as equals in all life spheres.

Besides, the authority or dominance of one gender over another is not practiced openly anymore. In other words, “the strength and activity differences between the male and female stereotypes are greater in socioeconomically less developed countries than in more developed countries”. It also tends to be greater in “countries where literacy is low and the percentage of women attending the university is low” (Best & Williams, 1993: 227) although in many cases, the education people receive in school and universities does not mean that they are not influenced by gender stereotypes.

In short, there is a lot to be said about the universality of gender prejudice. Class, education, religion and geography all play a part in determining subtle differences and peculiarities, some of which this work aims at revealing.

First, some claims:

1) Men interrupt women more than vice versa.

2) Women are more communicative than men.

3) Men do not give verbal recognition of the contributions in the conversation made by women.

4) Men curse more than women.

5) Women gossip more than men.

6) Women talk more with one another than men do.

7) Men speak more comfortably in public than women.

Gender and sex

Sex: a biological condition, i.e. defined as a set of physical characteristics

Gender: a social construct (within the fields of cultural and gender studies, and the social sciences)

“Today a return to separate single-sex schools may hasten the revival of separate gender roles”

– Wendy Kaminer, in The Atlantic Monthly (1998)

General usage of the term gender began in the late 1960s and 1970s, increasingly appearing in the professional literature of the social sciences.

The term helps in distinguishing those aspects of life that were more easily attributed or understood to be of social rather than biological origin (see e.g., Unger & Crawford, 1992).

Linguistic origins of Gender

According to Aristotle, the Greek philosopher Protagoras used the terms masculine, feminine, and neuter to classify nouns, introducing the concept of grammatical gender.

Many languages specify Gender (and gender agreement)

(1) Greek

o andras i gyneka to pedhi

the.masc. man the.fem. woman the.ntr. child

(2) German

der man die Frau das Kind

the.masc. man the.fem. woman the.ntr. child

(3) French

l(e) homme la femme

the.masc. man the.fem. woman

† Indoeuropean had gender distinction; Swahili has 16 gender distinctions. And many others don’t! (e.g. English, Astronesian languages)

But gender appears on pronouns:

(1) He left.

(2) She left.

(3) It left. (what types of things does “it” refer to?)

Gender correlates with other perceptual (and possibly grammatical) categories like humanness, agentivity, and animacy.

Gender Sensitization In Schools Sociology Essay

In view of the increasing role of women in public life and the efforts of the government in the direction of universalisation of education, the question of gender sensitization has assumed greater importance. Most Schools have become co-educational these days where boys and girls interact with students and teachers of the opposite sex. The physical proximity of the girls and boys has made interaction free and unrestrained. Reports of gender discrimination, sexual harassment, and other forms of sexually objectionable behaviour are quite common in Indian educational institutions. Numerous reasons can be forwarded behind such behaviour. We have to see the larger picture if we want to address this issue. Gender discrimination cannot be treated in isolation as it has its roots in deeper problems, which plague our society.

The Indian society is still in the process of modernisation where sections of the population continue to have traditional mindsets. The traditional Indian thinking considers males as superior to females and there are plenty of examples to show that young girls are discriminated against at home. Statistical evidence shows that boys in India have three times greater possibility of being taken to the hospital in case of a serious ailment. In many poor Indian houses males are fed first and the left – overs are eaten by the females. The dropout rate in Schools is much higher in case of girls. The scenario is even more grim in rural India where parents prefer to send the boy child to school and keep the girl child at home to assist in household work or to work in any other income-generating activity. This discrimination at home weakens the personality of women in general and they look upon themselves as inferior to men right from childhood. At the same time, boys are made to believe that they are inherently superior to females. Most boys and girls attend schools loaded with this mental baggage. The indoctrination received at home compounded by the already existing social differentiation between males and females give rise to attitudes in the male folk, which are far from egalitarian.

Though our constitution clearly proclaims equality of men and women in all spheres of public and private life yet it is not so in practice. Among the vast sections of the population groveling in illiteracy, concepts like gender equality are unheard of. Even in the so-called modern and affluent Indian houses gender discrimination may be discernible in some form or the other. Unless the economic standard of the country improves, girls may continue to be considered as burden of the family and gender sensitization may remain elusive. However, greater stress on education of females especially in rural India will definitely reduce the gender gap as education equips a person with courage to fight against discrimination.

The general moral debasement of our society is also responsible for disrespect for women. If the morality of the child improves then he will display greater respect for women and cases of sexual abuse or assault in educational institutions will reduce. In the modern times, earning money has become the prime motive of man and the child is imbued with the same zeal. Teachers, guardians and educational institutions are geared at academic advancement as it is considered as a sure way to success in life. Success in life is equated with earning money. When the primary goal of education becomes moneymaking then moral values definitely take a back seat in schools and colleges. Cases of sexual misconduct in schools are a direct result of the failure of guardians and teachers in inculcating moral values in children. Though, students are taught moral values as part of the curriculum yet it is done in a perfunctory manner. Inculcation of moral values in children has to be done in a very systematic manner by narration of stories with moral overtones. Such narration should be done to students at a very young age by a conscientious teacher. This needs to be followed up even in the middle and senior levels in schools. Moral uprightness should be lauded so that the seeds of moral values planted in children at a young age take firm roots. Teachers and guardians have to take a joint responsibility in this regard. They must understand that they can act as catalysts in bringing about a change in children’s mindsets and in society in general. The behaviour of teachers cannot be considered to be above board and they are often found to be behaving immorally. Sadly, enough schools are also not very careful in the recruitment of teachers. Most private schools operate as business houses and the sole concern is to earn money. Thus, the noble motive of imparting man-making education is lost.

Schools have to be more vigilant and careful in providing good-quality education and should provide proper care to the child. Only then can we expect children to grow strong academically, physically and morally. Schools should provide sufficient scope for engaging the child’s mind in various pursuits beyond the pale of academics so that their abundant energies may be diverted in creative activities. This would naturally curb the negative tendencies in children who are likely to develop a more positive attitude towards others. Students should be involved in-group activities involving both the sexes so that the curiosity and inhibitions regarding the opposite sex end. Cases of sexual misconduct within the school should be identified and dealt with strictly. The guilty, have to be counseled or punished depending on the severity of the case. The students including both boys and girls should be enlightened about the essential equality of all human beings irrespective of caste, creed, race or gender. Teachers should treat the students in a humane manner so that the students also behave likewise while dealing with their peers. Right attitudes have to be developed in the students so that they abstain from any kind of objectionable behaviour . Students can also act in groups helping each other to thwart the attempt of any abuser.

Teachers in schools should be ready to act as aids in helping students deal with such situations. Guidance by NGOs engaged in this field can also help to train children in tackling such situations. The schools should act in close collaboration with the guardians as the students receive the first impressions of life at home itself and ideas formed at the formative stages of life continue to linger in the later stages also.

(104)

Gender Sensitization in Schools

By Moushumi Ghoshal

Motilal Nehru School of Sports

Rai, Sonipat

The issue of gender sensitization has taken gargantuan proportions due to a national crisis which shook the nation to its core at the beginning of the year. The incident which was referred to as the ‘Delhi Gang rape’ left the issue of women’s safety split wide open, putting a question-mark over the attitude of the average Indian male in terms of his behavior with the opposite sex. Educational institutions must accept their share of the responsibility since the issue at hand is largely ignored, and often swept under the carpet, by private and govt. schools alike. Govt. policy on this issue too is vague and reactionary, leaving schools with no clear directives as to what is expected of them.

The first major concern of the society should be the formulation of clear cut laws which ensure women of a gender-sensitive environment in their workplace. The primary step taken, it then must ensure that schools are made the chosen vehicle to spread the message so that the society does not only have to take punitive measures, rather the desired aim is inculcated in the youth. Gender sensitization must be made part of the teacher-training programme so that all the aspects are well-ingrained in the teachers to pass on to the students.

More than at the senior or college level, gender related issues must be addressed at the primary level, so that young children growing up together may look upon each other as friends and partners rather than persons with whom no interaction was acceptable. Making children sit in small mixed groups and encouraging pair work/group work/project and activities in which there is a judicious mix of both boys and girls would make the children look on each other as just another student, rather than feeling shy of each other, which may lead to embarrassment, in articulation, a sense inadequacy in dealing with them and a feeling that they are “different”.

Another important step would be to make community service a vital part of the school curriculum. This would become the basis for moving towards a kinder and more compassionate society which reacts to gender issues with sensitivity and understanding. Community service helps to hone the finer qualities of a human being while also highlighting the joys of helping and working together.

One important aspect which must not be ignored is the treatment meted out to those who flout the accepted norms of gender-sensitive behavior. Keeping in view the fact that we are dealing with children at the formative age, it is vital that we do not alienate the offender; rather we try to bring him into the mainstream by counseling and an assurance of continued support in his guest to improve upon his behavior. Censure, public ridicule and a harsh punishment such as expulsion may bring about an entirely opposite result, further alienating the child. It must be assumed that certain children will take a long time to overcome gender issues, given the chauvinistic environment in most Indian homes. The key would be to press on resolutely rather than crack the whip.

(105)

Gender Sensitization in Schools

Kavitha Nair

Senior Secondary Teachers

Muljibhai Mehta International School

Gokul Township, Virar (W)

Gender sensitization refers to mental process of an individual when he or she comes in contact with individual of opposite gender. The thought process of an individual is always different for each gender.”Gender sensitization” the word evoke a mixed reaction in the mind depending where you are from ‘cities’ or ‘villages’ .The city bred youth think that girls are being given more than their due and from the village they are so insensitive to the need of a girl child that it is natural for them to think that a girl is subservient to a boy.

The significance of gender sensitizing, gender equality to the development is widely recognized globally accounting the various efforts by governments, civil society and development agencies in the holistic development. For the past few days all our mainline news channels and news papers have been reporting the growing atrocities against women across India .The ever existing issues of low sex ratio, female infanticide, denial of education to girls, dowry and the likes haunt us everyday .Crime against women are increasing at an alarming rate. It is surprising that ‘educated’ young men commit a lot of these crimes.

Nevertheless wherever you are from the need of being sensitive to the need of a girl is imperative and important. That does not mean that you should be insensitive to the needs of a boy but a girl requires a little more care as after the age of thirteen .She undergoes a lot of change physically as well as emotionally .When the kids are young that is before the age of ten, both boys and girls play with each other with no thought about gender differentiation .But as they start reaching adolescence parents , teachers ,friends and society keeps reminding them about gender differences. This creates the first seed of gender discrimination. A girl start with her menstrual cycle and a boy has certain changes in his body that he ‘starts’ becoming aware a girl as a ‘girl’. Boys and girls both show the traits of rowdiness, jealousy, camaraderie and infatuation in certain cases.

To Educate A Child Holistically (TEACH) is why a teacher is needed. A teacher is the best person to explain to the child various topics to the adolescent like the need of gender sensitization so as to be aware of the needs of each other.

How can a Teacher / school be helpful?

Many governments have achieved significant levels of success in reducing the gender gap in enrollment by increasing the enrolment of girls. Various programmes were included for the improvement of girls access, retention and performance like:-

Building schools close to the homes to provide safety and security for girls.

Flexible time table for subsistent activities.

Establishing community libraries.

Provision for separate toilets for boys and girls including proper bathroom facilities, sanitary ware and privacy related to management of menstruation for girls.

Proper rules against sexual harassment and sexual violence.

These issues can be dealt in the school level by using a very effective tool for gender sensitization like:

School to provide a value based approach in handling one’s sensuality.

For gender sensitization the ideal age group should be 12 to 15 years as in this age the children learn to differentiate a good touch and a bad touch.

Senior teachers, doctors, psychiatrist and child psychologist are ideal teachers because they know how to convey the point.

The delivery of a good gender sensitizing programmes can be more effective if interactive learning methodologies like debates, discussions, games, role play included in the session.

Over the years on the need of gender responsive teaching and learning materials, textbooks have many examples of gender stereotypes. As a matter of fact the teachers who were using these textbooks were not aware that there was anything wrong in the textbook. For curriculum setting teacher’s contribution is essential.

Well researched interesting audio video content on gender sensitization can reach out to the children, either through computer lab or through audio visual rooms.

Proper language should be used by the teachers in the class rooms. A healthy teacher student interaction should be carried.

As we are all social animals it is the responsibility of each and every individual to realize the duties with respect to the problems pertaining to the gender sensitization .Even after 6 decades of independence one frequently read about bride burning and dowry death. Therefore it is the prime responsibility of our education system to teach the child to discuss his thoughts, action and deeds. Education should help him or her to take right decisions in the right direction.

Teacher training must be necessary including training skills for children otherwise attainment of quality education and achievement of MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENTS GOALS and for gender equality for education as a whole will for a long time remain an illusion.

(106)

Gender Sensitization

Mrs Rukhsar Tanveer .Shaikh

Pre Primary section.

D.A.V Public school, Airoli

Till December 16, I had assumed that I am living in a state where sweet river flows, birds chirp, a cool air blows swiftly, nature around me is so beautiful and I am like an independent human being, where I have my self-esteem, dignity, respect and an identity as a woman. In a fraction of second, everything has got shattered, shaken and uprooted as if a tsunami, Katrina or torrential rain swept away. I was in a state of shock; I was not able to express my anger, frustration, sadness, pain. Now my soul is lost and only my body remains. Now I am scared, yes, it’s true because I am woman and above all I am blessed with a beautiful daughter Damini.

I get shivers as this name is given to that brave girl who has fought for her life till her last breath. I can feel a pain. Suddenly I became an educator because I have started educating every child and of course I can’t forget my own daughter. I have observed that adolescents are still not aware what has happened and if we, as a part of society will not take a drastic step to educate them, our soul will be lost for ever.

Every one of us is playing a vital role in our field. But we need to sow a seed by educating not only girl or boy but every citizen of our country. As a parent if I am guiding only my child, is that enough? Will crime stop forever? We should not forget the root. Each and every member of the society must be aware, educated, enlightened and imbibed with the roles, duties and responsibilities.

First of all we have to understand that in our journey we have to go to different stages i.e. infant, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. As a teacher I have an opportunity to interact with kids. I am nurturing the age group of 3.5 to 5.5 years. That doesn’t mean that I can’t inculcate values at this age.

I have taken initiative by making children aware of what good touch is and what bad touch is. And they must not allow any stranger or an unknown person in a society, bus, school, and road or on any occasion or festivals to misbehave. As a teacher we can narrow the bridge by making strong bond of friendships. Children either speak out to their parents or a teacher who is very close to their heart. With kids, also we need to orient parents to keep an eagle eye on their kids when they are playing in the society, mall, or school. Guide them through stories, discussions questioning and dramatization or puppets.

To inculcate values in adolescence is the next step by giving our students responsibility, awareness, alertness, by taking precautions and self defense.

Positive Attitude We all go through some bad phases. Children at this age, when are frustrated at home,. they tend to get isolated and get involved in bad company, bad habits and make hell of their life. If we sow a seed of positive thinking through seminars, workshops, or half an hour talk we can overcome negative feeling and help them lead a positive life. We can make a difference and we can make them a positive human being. A positive human being with a positive mind will never do wrong and will never encourage wrong deeds, because he is aware of the consequences and understands what is right or wrong.

Awareness adolescence goes through many stages. But life has its own turmoil. A child goes through many crises. Some parents are separated, some have financial problem, some have drunken father who beats his/her mother daily. Some do not have even the basic necessities of life. We teachers as moderators must encourage them to read news paper. And not just the headlines. It is our duty to help children read, understand and give their opinion. Through a healthy discussion between a teacher and a student, it is the role of a teacher to identify if there is any negativity and talk to the child. We can also take guidance from school counselor. Make them aware by involving them through street play, through workshop, of their responsibility. While talking there shouldn’t be any gender bias but equal respect and responsibilities. And help them understand to deal with crises.

Alertness we must help them understand that they have to be alert all the time. And for that they should not use mobiles, or listen to music by putting earplugs while they are out of school or while walking. They have to be alert while interacting with strangers at home or in society. And if they feel wrong gestures, they must immediately report to teacher or parents. Children must be updated and made aware of all the numbers i.e. of ambulance, police station, of parents, relatives and neighbours.

Self defense Help them learn the art of self defense. And remember every martial art has a rule to follow and we should use it when in trouble and not to trouble others.

Same conditions are applied for adulthood and old age. A worse situation can be faced by any one of us. But if we are aware, alert, with positive feeling and self defense we can make this world a better place to live in

I believe in ”practice what you preach”. All these are within my reach. I am doing my bit. Have you done yours?

(107)

Gender Sebsitisation in Schools

Shikha Sharma,

Lecturer,

Dept. Of Education,

C.C.S. University Campus,

Meerut

INTRODUCTION –

Around the world gender is the primary division between people. Gender consists of whatever traits a group considers proper for its males and females. Gender stratification means males and females unequal access to power, prestige, property on the basis of sex. No matter what we attain in life we are labelled as male or female. These labels carry images and expectations about how we should act. From birth right till death gender has a hand in shaping human feelings , thoughts and actions. Children quickly learn that society defines males and females as different kinds of people by the age of three. Gender affects how we think of ourselves , also it teaches us to act in a normative way. Gender roles are attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex. You learn your gender as you are socialized into the behavior and attitudes thought appropriate for your sex. The sociological significance of gender is that it is a device by which society controls its members.

Society expects males to be ambitious and competitive ,play sports and assume positions of leaderships. Females are expected to be deferential, emotional, supportive helpers and quick to cry. We expect them to be passive and emotional while males are expected to be independent and active. This perception of parents, communities and even policy makers is the root cause of social discrimination of girls. In most of societies girls and women are considered to be inferior to men. Girls are treated as a liability. Education of girls is a waste of scarce resources. This is because our social norms are built around the belief that girls only have a domestic role in the household economy. She does not provide for the family but only is a consumer. Her use is only as a potential child bearer and rearer . Parents believe that –

-Girls education has no relevance for her future life

-If girls are educated they get ideas of equality.

-When they invest in a girl’s education there are no returns.

Discrimination against women began centuries ago. This discrimination begins at home when a girl is born and in some cases even before she is born resulting in female foeticide. There are dietary insufficiencies both qualitative as well as quantitative. Girls are more often undernourished than boys. Everywhere there is male patriarchy where male dominates females. Throughout the modern world the portrayal of women and the image associated with them is that of a docile, beautiful creation in need of protection and care. This impression has been passed on from generation to generation through social norms. Women are expected to be submissive, obedient and humble individuals who have to play multiple roles of daughter, sister, wife , mother , daughter-in-law etc with perfection. An ideal women is one who does not raise voice or go against the wishes of the male members of the family. From early childhood she is trained to lead a life dependent on others and if she does not do so she is considered bold, immoral and therefore should be punished. This is evident from the rise in violence against women who have dared to challenge male domination.

ROLE OF SOCITEY-

Gender consiousness starts very early in life with the kind of roles one is expected to play. Girls help their mothers in household work and boys help by doing odd jobs outside. Girls are taught that their whole life revolves around their home. This image is further strengthened when an ideal gift for girl’s is dolls and cars and guns for boys. This carries forward the role society expects each one of them to play. Girls should remain at home caring and looking after every need of the family members whereas boys should be more aggressive and outgoing. Major and healthy portion of the food is kept for the male members of the family. In case of scarce resources it is the girl who has to make all the sacrifices. This is the price she has to pay for the security she is assured of by the male members which is the basic spirit behind various festivals like Raksha bandhan.

SCHOOLS-

This gender consiousness unfortunately is further strengthened in schools when we quickly label a boy who is crying as sissy or acting like a girl. Even in subject selection this consiousness is so overpowering that girls usually opt for fine arts, home science or biology. Maths is generally for boys. Girls going in for medical profession usually specialize in Gynecology, Paediatrics or physiotherapy; rarely do we find female cardiologist or oncologists. This biasness is found in every field – in Engineering it is computers and electronics for girls , Civil and mechanical is for boys. In M.B.A. girls usually go in for Marketing and HRD whereas Sales is for boys. Tradition fosters gender aspirations in their students by encouraging females to choose occupations in consonant with future husbands and children. Our society still defines high paying profession and the drive & competitiveness needed to succeed in them as masculine.

Again when we look at the world of sports here also feminine and less aggressive games are for girls like badminton ,tennis, swimming or athletics .Sports like Cricket, football are more popular with boys although female teams for such sports exist but they are not so popular. Girls usually are left for cheerleading to boost and motivate their male counterparts. Although there are exceptions like Alka Tomar, Mary Kom who have made a mark for themselves in such allegedly manly sports like wrestling and boxing. This discrimination in the field of sports is a world wide phenomena. This creates a prejudiced image on the impressionable young minds and which they carry with themselves for the rest of their lives. Whenever they encounter an image which clashes with their established views there is conflict which we are witnessing in the varied forms of violence and atrocities on women these days.

MEASURES –

Thus, gender sensitization is needed in every sphere of our lives be it schools, society, peer groups etc. This stereotyped image needs a complete overhaul especially the one depicted in our movies. But it should begin at the very grass root levels when the young mind begins to take shape i.e. at school. Because school is the second home of the child .It should begin from the very basic. They should be taught that girls or boys are not different .They are just two separate individuals who might be physically different but this physical difference should not guide their behaviour. Children should be taught to respect each others feelings and accept each others capabilities.

Image associated with what types of games one can play should also be broken. Girls should be encouraged to take up subjects for which they have aptitudes and which they want to pursue even if it goes against conventions. Stereotypes must be broken and children should be encouraged to do what their heart desire and not be deterred by the dictates of the society. Choice of a career should be their own decision and it should not be affected by what the society expects them to do.

Gender sensitivity should be made a part of the curriculum. The students should be made aware about the contribution of the females in the development of the society and how the two sexes can co-exist. Merely worshipping her as a goddess is not sufficient; she should be treated with respect and as a thinking individual. The society has to realize the immense potential they are wasting by denying equal status and opportunities to girls.

(108)

Gender Sensitization in Schools

Charul Mahendru

PGT (English)

DPS Rohini

Rohini, Sector 24 Delhi-110085

Wherever women are honored, there the gods are pleased – The Code of Manu (Manuscripts)

We live in an advanced society. Having enslaved even the most dangerous animals, we proudly live in the territories that once belonged to these ‘wild beasts.’ We have invented machines to make our lives easier and work faster. The world has shrunk and we plan to set up colonies on the moon! We have become more advanced as compared to our ‘barbaric ancestors.’ Man surely has come a long way from his hunter gathering stage.

However the position of women in society has changed little. Every day, newspapers are replete with the news of rape, molestation, domestic-violence or any other such crime against women. Girl students have the highest dropout rate in the rural areas, there is discrimination related to the salary earned by women especially in the rural areas. Women are subjected to discrimination at every stage in their life.

Statistics reveal that there are 65.5% literate women in India as compared to 82.1% males. 26.1% of women form the workforce in rural India as compared to 54.7% of men. The average salary of women in rural areas in 2009-10 was Rs.155.87 and that of the men was Rs.249.15. A total of 24,270 cases of crime against women were reported in India in 2011. The recent rape case of Nirbhaya has yet again revealed the sorry state of women in our modern society.

Is it the same India where women are worshipped as goddesses? In our culture the figure of Ardhnarishwara or half man and half woman is revered and worshipped. The Ardhnarishwara, in a way is a symbol of equality of the sexes, of the fact that both sexes are equally significant and none is less than the other. This is our culture that treats both sexes as equals. However, we, who take pride in our rich heritage and in the culture of revering womanhood, are slipping into the morass of depravity. All doesn’t seem well in man’s paradise.

This wasn’t the case in the hunter gathering society. There was no male supremacy over women as there was almost a division of labour between the sexes. Men did most of the hunting and women did most of the gathering. (Chris Harman: A People’s History of the World). Industrialization brought with it new ways of production which created new relations between the sexes. The man strengthened his position as the bread earner and the role of women was reduced to child bearing and rearing of the family. Gradually women were thrust into a position of dependence and subordination to men. This led to the great divide and women were no longer treated as equals.

In order to bring women at par with their male counterparts, the need of the hour is to instill ender Sensitization among the youth. Gender Sensitization can be defined as the modification of behavior and instilling empathy into the views that we hold about our own and the other sex. It helps people in examining their personal attitudes and beliefs and questioning the realities they thought they know. Since home and school influence a child’s development the most, it becomes imperative that such training begins from here to nip the problem in the bud.

There are several ways in which we can instill gender sensitivity among our students. Morning assemblies can be organized to promote gender equality. Skits, debates, street plays and panel discussions can also be conducted to sensitize the students to this issue of national importance. Not only this, the subject of gender equality could be integrated with the subjects. Students can be asked to carry out surveys to assess the prevalence of gender inequality, for eg. students can be asked to find out the names of some famous Indian women physicists/ mathematicians. Apart from this, value education classes can also act as a handy tool to motivate students to respect everyone irrespective of sex. A meeting with parents can be organized by the Principal in order

In view of the increasing role of women in public life and the efforts of the government in the direction of universalisation of education, the question of gender sensitization has assumed greater importance. Most Schools have become co-educational these days where boys and girls interact with students and teachers of the opposite sex. The physical proximity of the girls and boys has made interaction free and unrestrained. Reports of gender discrimination, sexual harassment, and other forms of sexually objectionable behaviour are quite common in Indian educational institutions. Numerous reasons can be forwarded behind such behaviour. We have to see the larger picture if we want to address this issue. Gender discrimination cannot be treated in isolation as it has its roots in deeper problems, which plague our society.

The Indian society is still in the process of modernisation where sections of the population continue to have traditional mindsets. The traditional Indian thinking considers males as superior to females and there are plenty of examples to show that young girls are discriminated against at home. Statistical evidence shows that boys in India have three times greater possibility of being taken to the hospital in case of a serious ailment. In many poor Indian houses males are fed first and the left – overs are eaten by the females. The dropout rate in Schools is much higher in case of girls. The scenario is even more grim in rural India where parents prefer to send the boy child to school and keep the girl child at home to assist in household work or to work in any other income-generating activity. This discrimination at home weakens the personality of women in general and they look upon themselves as inferior to men right from childhood. At the same time, boys are made to believe that they are inherently superior to females. Most boys and girls attend schools loaded with this mental baggage. The indoctrination received at home compounded by the already existing social differentiation between males and females give rise to attitudes in the male folk, which are far from egalitarian.

Though our constitution clearly proclaims equality of men and women in all spheres of public and private life yet it is not so in practice. Among the vast sections of the population groveling in illiteracy, concepts like gender equality are unheard of. Even in the so-called modern and affluent Indian houses gender discrimination may be discernible in some form or the other. Unless the economic standard of the country improves, girls may continue to be considered as burden of the family and gender sensitization may remain elusive. However, greater stress on education of females especially in rural India will definitely reduce the gender gap as education equips a person with courage to fight against discrimination.

The general moral debasement of our society is also responsible for disrespect for women. If the morality of the child improves then he will display greater respect for women and cases of sexual abuse or assault in educational institutions will reduce. In the modern times, earning money has become the prime motive of man and the child is imbued with the same zeal. Teachers, guardians and educational institutions are geared at academic advancement as it is considered as a sure way to success in life. Success in life is equated with earning money. When the primary goal of education becomes moneymaking then moral values definitely take a back seat in schools and colleges. Cases of sexual misconduct in schools are a direct result of the failure of guardians and teachers in inculcating moral values in children. Though, students are taught moral values as part of the curriculum yet it is done in a perfunctory manner. Inculcation of moral values in children has to be done in a very systematic manner by narration of stories with moral overtones. Such narration should be done to students at a very young age by a conscientious teacher. This needs to be followed up even in the middle and senior levels in schools. Moral uprightness should be lauded so that the seeds of moral values planted in children at a young age take firm roots. Teachers and guardians have to take a joint responsibility in this regard. They must understand that they can act as catalysts in bringing about a change in children’s mindsets and in society in general. The behaviour of teachers cannot be considered to be above board and they are often found to be behaving immorally. Sadly, enough schools are also not very careful in the recruitment of teachers. Most private schools operate as business houses and the sole concern is to earn money. Thus, the noble motive of imparting man-making education is lost.

Schools have to be more vigilant and careful in providing good-quality education and should provide proper care to the child. Only then can we expect children to grow strong academically, physically and morally. Schools should provide sufficient scope for engaging the child’s mind in various pursuits beyond the pale of academics so that their abundant energies may be diverted in creative activities. This would naturally curb the negative tendencies in children who are likely to develop a more positive attitude towards others. Students should be involved in-group activities involving both the sexes so that the curiosity and inhibitions regarding the opposite sex end. Cases of sexual misconduct within the school should be identified and dealt with strictly. The guilty, have to be counseled or punished depending on the severity of the case. The students including both boys and girls should be enlightened about the essential equality of all human beings irrespective of caste, creed, race or gender. Teachers should treat the students in a humane manner so that the students also behave likewise while dealing with their peers. Right attitudes have to be developed in the students so that they abstain from any kind of objectionable behaviour . Students can also act in groups helping each other to thwart the attempt of any abuser.

Teachers in schools should be ready to act as aids in helping students deal with such situations. Guidance by NGOs engaged in this field can also help to train children in tackling such situations. The schools should act in close collaboration with the guardians as the students receive the first impressions of life at home itself and ideas formed at the formative stages of life continue to linger in the later stages also.

(104)

Gender Sensitization in Schools

By Moushumi Ghoshal

Motilal Nehru School of Sports

Rai, Sonipat

The issue of gender sensitization has taken gargantuan proportions due to a national crisis which shook the nation to its core at the beginning of the year. The incident which was referred to as the ‘Delhi Gang rape’ left the issue of women’s safety split wide open, putting a question-mark over the attitude of the average Indian male in terms of his behavior with the opposite sex. Educational institutions must accept their share of the responsibility since the issue at hand is largely ignored, and often swept under the carpet, by private and govt. schools alike. Govt. policy on this issue too is vague and reactionary, leaving schools with no clear directives as to what is expected of them.

The first major concern of the society should be the formulation of clear cut laws which ensure women of a gender-sensitive environment in their workplace. The primary step taken, it then must ensure that schools are made the chosen vehicle to spread the message so that the society does not only have to take punitive measures, rather the desired aim is inculcated in the youth. Gender sensitization must be made part of the teacher-training programme so that all the aspects are well-ingrained in the teachers to pass on to the students.

More than at the senior or college level, gender related issues must be addressed at the primary level, so that young children growing up together may look upon each other as friends and partners rather than persons with whom no interaction was acceptable. Making children sit in small mixed groups and encouraging pair work/group work/project and activities in which there is a judicious mix of both boys and girls would make the children look on each other as just another student, rather than feeling shy of each other, which may lead to embarrassment, in articulation, a sense inadequacy in dealing with them and a feeling that they are “different”.

Another important step would be to make community service a vital part of the school curriculum. This would become the basis for moving towards a kinder and more compassionate society which reacts to gender issues with sensitivity and understanding. Community service helps to hone the finer qualities of a human being while also highlighting the joys of helping and working together.

One important aspect which must not be ignored is the treatment meted out to those who flout the accepted norms of gender-sensitive behavior. Keeping in view the fact that we are dealing with children at the formative age, it is vital that we do not alienate the offender; rather we try to bring him into the mainstream by counseling and an assurance of continued support in his guest to improve upon his behavior. Censure, public ridicule and a harsh punishment such as expulsion may bring about an entirely opposite result, further alienating the child. It must be assumed that certain children will take a long time to overcome gender issues, given the chauvinistic environment in most Indian homes. The key would be to press on resolutely rather than crack the whip.

(105)

Gender Sensitization in Schools

Kavitha Nair

Senior Secondary Teachers

Muljibhai Mehta International School

Gokul Township, Virar (W)

Gender sensitization refers to mental process of an individual when he or she comes in contact with individual of opposite gender. The thought process of an individual is always different for each gender.”Gender sensitization” the word evoke a mixed reaction in the mind depending where you are from ‘cities’ or ‘villages’ .The city bred youth think that girls are being given more than their due and from the village they are so insensitive to the need of a girl child that it is natural for them to think that a girl is subservient to a boy.

The significance of gender sensitizing, gender equality to the development is widely recognized globally accounting the various efforts by governments, civil society and development agencies in the holistic development. For the past few days all our mainline news channels and news papers have been reporting the growing atrocities against women across India .The ever existing issues of low sex ratio, female infanticide, denial of education to girls, dowry and the likes haunt us everyday .Crime against women are increasing at an alarming rate. It is surprising that ‘educated’ young men commit a lot of these crimes.

Nevertheless wherever you are from the need of being sensitive to the need of a girl is imperative and important. That does not mean that you should be insensitive to the needs of a boy but a girl requires a little more care as after the age of thirteen .She undergoes a lot of change physically as well as emotionally .When the kids are young that is before the age of ten, both boys and girls play with each other with no thought about gender differentiation .But as they start reaching adolescence parents , teachers ,friends and society keeps reminding them about gender differences. This creates the first seed of gender discrimination. A girl start with her menstrual cycle and a boy has certain changes in his body that he ‘starts’ becoming aware a girl as a ‘girl’. Boys and girls both show the traits of rowdiness, jealousy, camaraderie and infatuation in certain cases.

To Educate A Child Holistically (TEACH) is why a teacher is needed. A teacher is the best person to explain to the child various topics to the adolescent like the need of gender sensitization so as to be aware of the needs of each other.

How can a Teacher / school be helpful?

Many governments have achieved significant levels of success in reducing the gender gap in enrollment by increasing the enrolment of girls. Various programmes were included for the improvement of girls access, retention and performance like:-

Building schools close to the homes to provide safety and security for girls.

Flexible time table for subsistent activities.

Establishing community libraries.

Provision for separate toilets for boys and girls including proper bathroom facilities, sanitary ware and privacy related to management of menstruation for girls.

Proper rules against sexual harassment and sexual violence.

These issues can be dealt in the school level by using a very effective tool for gender sensitization like:

School to provide a value based approach in handling one’s sensuality.

For gender sensitization the ideal age group should be 12 to 15 years as in this age the children learn to differentiate a good touch and a bad touch.

Senior teachers, doctors, psychiatrist and child psychologist are ideal teachers because they know how to convey the point.

The delivery of a good gender sensitizing programmes can be more effective if interactive learning methodologies like debates, discussions, games, role play included in the session.

Over the years on the need of gender responsive teaching and learning materials, textbooks have many examples of gender stereotypes. As a matter of fact the teachers who were using these textbooks were not aware that there was anything wrong in the textbook. For curriculum setting teacher’s contribution is essential.

Well researched interesting audio video content on gender sensitization can reach out to the children, either through computer lab or through audio visual rooms.

Proper language should be used by the teachers in the class rooms. A healthy teacher student interaction should be carried.

As we are all social animals it is the responsibility of each and every individual to realize the duties with respect to the problems pertaining to the gender sensitization .Even after 6 decades of independence one frequently read about bride burning and dowry death. Therefore it is the prime responsibility of our education system to teach the child to discuss his thoughts, action and deeds. Education should help him or her to take right decisions in the right direction.

Teacher training must be necessary including training skills for children otherwise attainment of quality education and achievement of MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENTS GOALS and for gender equality for education as a whole will for a long time remain an illusion.

(106)

Gender Sensitization

Mrs Rukhsar Tanveer .Shaikh

Pre Primary section.

D.A.V Public school, Airoli

Till December 16, I had assumed that I am living in a state where sweet river flows, birds chirp, a cool air blows swiftly, nature around me is so beautiful and I am like an independent human being, where I have my self-esteem, dignity, respect and an identity as a woman. In a fraction of second, everything has got shattered, shaken and uprooted as if a tsunami, Katrina or torrential rain swept away. I was in a state of shock; I was not able to express my anger, frustration, sadness, pain. Now my soul is lost and only my body remains. Now I am scared, yes, it’s true because I am woman and above all I am blessed with a beautiful daughter Damini.

I get shivers as this name is given to that brave girl who has fought for her life till her last breath. I can feel a pain. Suddenly I became an educator because I have started educating every child and of course I can’t forget my own daughter. I have observed that adolescents are still not aware what has happened and if we, as a part of society will not take a drastic step to educate them, our soul will be lost for ever.

Every one of us is playing a vital role in our field. But we need to sow a seed by educating not only girl or boy but every citizen of our country. As a parent if I am guiding only my child, is that enough? Will crime stop forever? We should not forget the root. Each and every member of the society must be aware, educated, enlightened and imbibed with the roles, duties and responsibilities.

First of all we have to understand that in our journey we have to go to different stages i.e. infant, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. As a teacher I have an opportunity to interact with kids. I am nurturing the age group of 3.5 to 5.5 years. That doesn’t mean that I can’t inculcate values at this age.

I have taken initiative by making children aware of what good touch is and what bad touch is. And they must not allow any stranger or an unknown person in a society, bus, school, and road or on any occasion or festivals to misbehave. As a teacher we can narrow the bridge by making strong bond of friendships. Children either speak out to their parents or a teacher who is very close to their heart. With kids, also we need to orient parents to keep an eagle eye on their kids when they are playing in the society, mall, or school. Guide them through stories, discussions questioning and dramatization or puppets.

To inculcate values in adolescence is the next step by giving our students responsibility, awareness, alertness, by taking precautions and self defense.

Positive Attitude We all go through some bad phases. Children at this age, when are frustrated at home,. they tend to get isolated and get involved in bad company, bad habits and make hell of their life. If we sow a seed of positive thinking through seminars, workshops, or half an hour talk we can overcome negative feeling and help them lead a positive life. We can make a difference and we can make them a positive human being. A positive human being with a positive mind will never do wrong and will never encourage wrong deeds, because he is aware of the consequences and understands what is right or wrong.

Awareness adolescence goes through many stages. But life has its own turmoil. A child goes through many crises. Some parents are separated, some have financial problem, some have drunken father who beats his/her mother daily. Some do not have even the basic necessities of life. We teachers as moderators must encourage them to read news paper. And not just the headlines. It is our duty to help children read, understand and give their opinion. Through a healthy discussion between a teacher and a student, it is the role of a teacher to identify if there is any negativity and talk to the child. We can also take guidance from school counselor. Make them aware by involving them through street play, through workshop, of their responsibility. While talking there shouldn’t be any gender bias but equal respect and responsibilities. And help them understand to deal with crises.

Alertness we must help them understand that they have to be alert all the time. And for that they should not use mobiles, or listen to music by putting earplugs while they are out of school or while walking. They have to be alert while interacting with strangers at home or in society. And if they feel wrong gestures, they must immediately report to teacher or parents. Children must be updated and made aware of all the numbers i.e. of ambulance, police station, of parents, relatives and neighbours.

Self defense Help them learn the art of self defense. And remember every martial art has a rule to follow and we should use it when in trouble and not to trouble others.

Same conditions are applied for adulthood and old age. A worse situation can be faced by any one of us. But if we are aware, alert, with positive feeling and self defense we can make this world a better place to live in

I believe in ”practice what you preach”. All these are within my reach. I am doing my bit. Have you done yours?

(107)

Gender Sebsitisation in Schools

Shikha Sharma,

Lecturer,

Dept. Of Education,

C.C.S. University Campus,

Meerut

INTRODUCTION –

Around the world gender is the primary division between people. Gender consists of whatever traits a group considers proper for its males and females. Gender stratification means males and females unequal access to power, prestige, property on the basis of sex. No matter what we attain in life we are labelled as male or female. These labels carry images and expectations about how we should act. From birth right till death gender has a hand in shaping human feelings , thoughts and actions. Children quickly learn that society defines males and females as different kinds of people by the age of three. Gender affects how we think of ourselves , also it teaches us to act in a normative way. Gender roles are attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex. You learn your gender as you are socialized into the behavior and attitudes thought appropriate for your sex. The sociological significance of gender is that it is a device by which society controls its members.

Society expects males to be ambitious and competitive ,play sports and assume positions of leaderships. Females are expected to be deferential, emotional, supportive helpers and quick to cry. We expect them to be passive and emotional while males are expected to be independent and active. This perception of parents, communities and even policy makers is the root cause of social discrimination of girls. In most of societies girls and women are considered to be inferior to men. Girls are treated as a liability. Education of girls is a waste of scarce resources. This is because our social norms are built around the belief that girls only have a domestic role in the household economy. She does not provide for the family but only is a consumer. Her use is only as a potential child bearer and rearer . Parents believe that –

-Girls education has no relevance for her future life

-If girls are educated they get ideas of equality.

-When they invest in a girl’s education there are no returns.

Discrimination against women began centuries ago. This discrimination begins at home when a girl is born and in some cases even before she is born resulting in female foeticide. There are dietary insufficiencies both qualitative as well as quantitative. Girls are more often undernourished than boys. Everywhere there is male patriarchy where male dominates females. Throughout the modern world the portrayal of women and the image associated with them is that of a docile, beautiful creation in need of protection and care. This impression has been passed on from generation to generation through social norms. Women are expected to be submissive, obedient and humble individuals who have to play multiple roles of daughter, sister, wife , mother , daughter-in-law etc with perfection. An ideal women is one who does not raise voice or go against the wishes of the male members of the family. From early childhood she is trained to lead a life dependent on others and if she does not do so she is considered bold, immoral and therefore should be punished. This is evident from the rise in violence against women who have dared to challenge male domination.

ROLE OF SOCITEY-

Gender consiousness starts very early in life with the kind of roles one is expected to play. Girls help their mothers in household work and boys help by doing odd jobs outside. Girls are taught that their whole life revolves around their home. This image is further strengthened when an ideal gift for girl’s is dolls and cars and guns for boys. This carries forward the role society expects each one of them to play. Girls should remain at home caring and looking after every need of the family members whereas boys should be more aggressive and outgoing. Major and healthy portion of the food is kept for the male members of the family. In case of scarce resources it is the girl who has to make all the sacrifices. This is the price she has to pay for the security she is assured of by the male members which is the basic spirit behind various festivals like Raksha bandhan.

SCHOOLS-

This gender consiousness unfortunately is further strengthened in schools when we quickly label a boy who is crying as sissy or acting like a girl. Even in subject selection this consiousness is so overpowering that girls usually opt for fine arts, home science or biology. Maths is generally for boys. Girls going in for medical profession usually specialize in Gynecology, Paediatrics or physiotherapy; rarely do we find female cardiologist or oncologists. This biasness is found in every field – in Engineering it is computers and electronics for girls , Civil and mechanical is for boys. In M.B.A. girls usually go in for Marketing and HRD whereas Sales is for boys. Tradition fosters gender aspirations in their students by encouraging females to choose occupations in consonant with future husbands and children. Our society still defines high paying profession and the drive & competitiveness needed to succeed in them as masculine.

Again when we look at the world of sports here also feminine and less aggressive games are for girls like badminton ,tennis, swimming or athletics .Sports like Cricket, football are more popular with boys although female teams for such sports exist but they are not so popular. Girls usually are left for cheerleading to boost and motivate their male counterparts. Although there are exceptions like Alka Tomar, Mary Kom who have made a mark for themselves in such allegedly manly sports like wrestling and boxing. This discrimination in the field of sports is a world wide phenomena. This creates a prejudiced image on the impressionable young minds and which they carry with themselves for the rest of their lives. Whenever they encounter an image which clashes with their established views there is conflict which we are witnessing in the varied forms of violence and atrocities on women these days.

MEASURES –

Thus, gender sensitization is needed in every sphere of our lives be it schools, society, peer groups etc. This stereotyped image needs a complete overhaul especially the one depicted in our movies. But it should begin at the very grass root levels when the young mind begins to take shape i.e. at school. Because school is the second home of the child .It should begin from the very basic. They should be taught that girls or boys are not different .They are just two separate individuals who might be physically different but this physical difference should not guide their behaviour. Children should be taught to respect each others feelings and accept each others capabilities.

Image associated with what types of games one can play should also be broken. Girls should be encouraged to take up subjects for which they have aptitudes and which they want to pursue even if it goes against conventions. Stereotypes must be broken and children should be encouraged to do what their heart desire and not be deterred by the dictates of the society. Choice of a career should be their own decision and it should not be affected by what the society expects them to do.

Gender sensitivity should be made a part of the curriculum. The students should be made aware about the contribution of the females in the development of the society and how the two sexes can co-exist. Merely worshipping her as a goddess is not sufficient; she should be treated with respect and as a thinking individual. The society has to realize the immense potential they are wasting by denying equal status and opportunities to girls.

(108)

Gender Sensitization in Schools

Charul Mahendru

PGT (English)

DPS Rohini

Rohini, Sector 24 Delhi-110085

Wherever women are honored, there the gods are pleased – The Code of Manu (Manuscripts)

We live in an advanced society. Having enslaved even the most dangerous animals, we proudly live in the territories that once belonged to these ‘wild beasts.’ We have invented machines to make our lives easier and work faster. The world has shrunk and we plan to set up colonies on the moon! We have become more advanced as compared to our ‘barbaric ancestors.’ Man surely has come a long way from his hunter gathering stage.

However the position of women in society has changed little. Every day, newspapers are replete with the news of rape, molestation, domestic-violence or any other such crime against women. Girl students have the highest dropout rate in the rural areas, there is discrimination related to the salary earned by women especially in the rural areas. Women are subjected to discrimination at every stage in their life.

Statistics reveal that there are 65.5% literate women in India as compared to 82.1% males. 26.1% of women form the workforce in rural India as compared to 54.7% of men. The average salary of women in rural areas in 2009-10 was Rs.155.87 and that of the men was Rs.249.15. A total of 24,270 cases of crime against women were reported in India in 2011. The recent rape case of Nirbhaya has yet again revealed the sorry state of women in our modern society.

Is it the same India where women are worshipped as goddesses? In our culture the figure of Ardhnarishwara or half man and half woman is revered and worshipped. The Ardhnarishwara, in a way is a symbol of equality of the sexes, of the fact that both sexes are equally significant and none is less than the other. This is our culture that treats both sexes as equals. However, we, who take pride in our rich heritage and in the culture of revering womanhood, are slipping into the morass of depravity. All doesn’t seem well in man’s paradise.

This wasn’t the case in the hunter gathering society. There was no male supremacy over women as there was almost a division of labour between the sexes. Men did most of the hunting and women did most of the gathering. (Chris Harman: A People’s History of the World). Industrialization brought with it new ways of production which created new relations between the sexes. The man strengthened his position as the bread earner and the role of women was reduced to child bearing and rearing of the family. Gradually women were thrust into a position of dependence and subordination to men. This led to the great divide and women were no longer treated as equals.

In order to bring women at par with their male counterparts, the need of the hour is to instill ender Sensitization among the youth. Gender Sensitization can be defined as the modification of behavior and instilling empathy into the views that we hold about our own and the other sex. It helps people in examining their personal attitudes and beliefs and questioning the realities they thought they know. Since home and school influence a child’s development the most, it becomes imperative that such training begins from here to nip the problem in the bud.

There are several ways in which we can instill gender sensitivity among our students. Morning assemblies can be organized to promote gender equality. Skits, debates, street plays and panel discussions can also be conducted to sensitize the students to this issue of national importance. Not only this, the subject of gender equality could be integrated with the subjects. Students can be asked to carry out surveys to assess the prevalence of gender inequality, for eg. students can be asked to find out the names of some famous Indian women physicists/ mathematicians. Apart from this, value education classes can also act as a handy tool to motivate students to respect everyone irrespective of sex. A meeting with parents can be organized by the Principal in order