Sleep Deprivation has been Around Since the Dawn of Time Essay

In 16th century Scotland, it was used to test and torture accused witches. It was a popular form of confession-eliciting torture called waking the witch. After staying awake for days, their hallucinations caused them to spin false tales of flying and shapeshifting into animals. Marie de Manaceine, a Russian scientist, experimented with sleep deprivation on puppies in 1894. The puppies were deprived between four and five days of sleep. Unexpectedly, after the experiment, all the puppies died. Sleep deprivation was a legal and standard practice of US military torture until 2009. A common method is to use a heretic’s fork, such as the one pictured above. These are not the only things that can cause sleep deprivation, however. (Mann).

Many sleep disorders can cause sleep deprivation. In fact, sleep deprivation and sleep disorders are both very general terms. Sleep disorders can refer to any condition that affects one’s quality and/or quantity of sleep; sleep deprivation refers to a state where one doesn’t get enough sleep or don’t get enough quality sleep. There are many symptoms of sleep disorders that are easily spotted, whether it is in oneself or others. Some of these symptoms include irritability during the day, difficulty staying awake, feeling tired while driving, difficulty concentrating, slow reactions, difficulty controlling emotions, and more. The more symptoms one has, the more likely they are to have a sleep disorder. Some common sleep disorders that may lead to sleep deprivation include insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome. (Smith, et al.).

The National Sleep Foundation has a recommendation for sleep durations depending on one’s age. A chart is shown above with the following information. Newborns are recommended to sleep for 14-17 hours daily. Infants should sleep for 12-15 hours daily. Toddlers should sleep for 11-14 hours daily. Preschoolers should sleep for 10-13 hours daily. School-age children should sleep for 9-11 hours daily. Teenagers should sleep for 8-10 hours daily. Adults should sleep for 7-9 hours daily, and adults over 65 years old should sleep between seven and eight hours a day. (Nat’l Sleep Foundation). Many sleep disorders can end up leading to sleep deprivation or already have it as a side effect. As mentioned above, these disorders include insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome. Other causes of sleep deprivation can include personal choice, medications, family obligations, and illness. Someone may avoid sleeping to socialize with their friends, finish a school assignment, or stay late for work. One might also be staying up because of their young children. Everyone has their reasons to stay up late occasionally, but doing it often can be detrimental to one’s health. (Dept. of Health & Human Services).

There are many side effects of not getting an adequate amount of sleep. There can also be different symptoms depending on age; however, I will be focusing on adults and teenagers. Some of the less serious effects in adults include yawning, grogginess, and reduced work efficiency. More serious effects can include slower reaction time, poorer judgment, reduced awareness, and microsleep. This can be very dangerous because it may lead to drowsy driving, which, in some cases, is at least as dangerous as driving drunk. In fact, going 24 hours without sleep is similar to having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) reading of 0.1%. This is greater than the legal limit of 0.8% BAC. (Dept. of Health & Human Services).

Scientists have previously assessed three different categories to measure the effects of sleep deprivation on a person’s performance. These categories include cognitive performance, motor skill performance, and mood. The test subjects had to perform exams of logical reasoning, mental addition, visual search tests, and word memory tasks to measure their cognitive performance. These exams may have included word searches, math problems, or being given verbal instructions that had to later be recited. Motor skill tests may have included reaction times, simple treadmill walking, and manual dexterity tests. Reaction times may have been tested by tossing a football at one of the test subjects. Dexterity tests may have been executed by using a specific hand to place pegs in a board (such as the one below) while listening to specific instructions. For testing the subjects’ moods, the scientists could simply ask the subjects. (Pilcher and Huffcut).

Treatments are only required when a person can physically not get to sleep. The reason for this may be physical or psychological. Treatments can include medications, cognitive and behavioral treatment, or something as simple as changing one’s nighttime routine. Medications can include benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, and melatonin; this, however, is not always recommended due to the fact that some people can form dependencies on these medications. Benzodiazepines are anxiety-reducing sedatives. Cognitive and behavioral treatments may include relaxation techniques or stimulation control. Stimulation control can include changing one’s nighttime routine. (Davis). It is recommended to have one’s bedroom at around 65?° Fahrenheit for optimal sleeping conditions. It is also recommended to not have electronics on close to the time one goes to sleep or even in the bedroom. If one does have electronics in the bedroom, they should place them away from the bed, as the blue light from screens can suppress melatonin production in the body. A lack of sleep can be extremely detrimental to one’s health. Humans spend about one-third of their life asleep, and one in five adults fails to get an adequate amount of rest. As Jaeda DeWalt once said, Sleep deprivation is physically miserable and creatively cathartic, as internal landscapes rise up from their dormant ashes. Sleep is just as important to our health as drinking water or eating, and people don’t treat it as such.

Sleep Deprivation Causes Productivity Loss Essay

Our world is constantly innovating and moving forward. This is true in all fields of work and learning. There are many different ideas on how we might do this faster or better. One is that sleep deprivation causes productivity loss and can be dangerous. Not necessary Some people have argued that this does not have much of an effect beyond bags under your eyes and the occasional yawn. Although this has been proven bad for productivity, some employers require their employees to receive special training on low sleep work. Even with this training sleep deprivation could still cause catastrophic damage in the transportation field and medical field.

Some of the worst accidents in history have been caused by sleep deprivation. One of these accidents, was caused by two engineers who were without sleep for 18 hours and had only received a small amount this then led to the death of 30 people, the injury of 300 people, and relocation of thousands of people. But even if you aren’t a nuclear engineer your sleep deprivation can cause you and others to be injured or killed. In the year 2013 alone sleep deprived driving caused 72,000 car crashes 44,000 people injured and cost 800 people their lives. With the amount of time you spend in car each day most likely saying this may be dangerous is an understatement. But some would like to argue with these statements saying that the negative. With one source saying some are not affected by sleep deprivation as others (Matthews, Melissa). This could mean that you should just put in more hours and not bother with the sleeping thing that much. But a more reasonable solution would be to sleep and see how long it takes your body to naturally wake up, and then you should then base your bed time of that and the time you need to wake up. This is not saying that the once a month late night essay will kill you. This is just a warning and a reminder to make sure you are getting enough sleep every night.

Sleep Deprivation and Behavioral Issues in Children Essay

Dr. Somnus, of Somnus Pediatrics, encounters numerous children in his practice who are affected by poor sleep habits. He suspects that there is a strong connection between disturbed sleep and behavioral problems in the children he sees. He is exploring what research suggests about the link between poor sleep and poor behavior as well as recommendations of possible intervention techniques that could improve sleep habits and behaviors among his patients. Backed up by research collected as a group, the team can conclude that poor sleep is severely detrimental to the neurobehavioral, as well as cognitive, development of children. However, the research also shows numerous intervention methods that both parents and Dr. Somnus can implement to achieve better outcomes for those children affected by inadequate sleep.

Research conducted by Sadeh, Gruber, and Raviv highlights a clear link between sleep quality and behavioral functioning and development in school-aged children. Within this study, a total of one hundred and thirty five (69 boys and 66 girls) healthy school-aged children from three distinct class groups (2nd, 4th, and 6th grades) were assessed objectively, using actigraphy and neurobehavioral functioning evaluations, in their homes for five consecutive nights. (Sadeh, Gruber & Raviv, 2002). The use of three distinct class groups in this study emphasizes a developmental perspective on this issue. More specifically, the researchers of this study were interested in comparing the effects of reduced sleep on behavioral functioning between younger and older children. In addition to this, the team of researchers also tested the neurobehavioral functioning of participants at two separate times during the day to consider when sleep quality more affected their performance; either earlier in the day, or later in the day. (Sadeh et al., 2002). The actigraph measures used in this study included: sleep onset time, morning awakening time, total sleep time, true sleep time (excluding periods of wakefulness), sleep percent, number of night wakings, longest sleep durations, and periods of quiet sleep with no movement. (Sadeh et al., 2002). Neurobehavioral functioning evalutations included tests such as: finger tapping, reaction time, continuous performance (CPT), symbol-digit substitution (SBS), visual digit span, and serial digit learning. (Sadeh et al., 2002). The CBCL was used to assess behavioral issues in the perspective of parents. (Sadeh et al., 2002).

Overall, the results show that sleep fragmentation can indeed negatively affect neurobehavioral functioning in almost all aspects of performance. Interestingly, the CPT results indicate that fragmented sleep increases impulsivity and behavioral inhibitionempirically linked to psychopathology in children, especially so in the younger ones compared to the older ones. (Sadeh et al., 2002). In terms of the time of day, poor sleepers tend to be largely affected during the early morning hours due to high levels of sleepiness or sleep inertia, and later in the day, some of these group differences disappeared. This suggests that both quantity and quality of sleep play a crucial role in alertness and performance among school-aged children. (Sadeh et al., 2002). Reports by parents on the CBCL indicated that, in general, good sleepers behaved better and regulated emotions better than poor sleepers. (Sadeh et al., 2002). There is a solid theoretical and empirical background that may lead to the interpretation that the compromised neurobehavioral functioning is a result of reduced alertness, or increased sleepiness associated with sleep fragmentation. (Sadeh et al., 2002, p.412).

Another source, research by Vriend, Davidson, Corkum, Rusak, Chambers, and McLaughlin, revealed that even slight but, cumulative differences in sleep duration over the course of a few nights, can present dire consequences in the daytime functioning of children. In this study thirty-two children between the ages of 8-10years were tested for three weeks using actigraphs; these children were randomly assigned to either go to bed one hour earlier or later for 4 nights, and then switched and completed the opposite conditions as well. (Vriend et al., 2013). After each week, both subjective and objective measurements where used to consider each child’s emotional and cognitive functioning. (Vriend et al., 2013). Evidence showed that the children given the shorter duration of sleep versus the longer sleeper time, showed significant impairment in areas including: positive affective response, emotional regulation, short-term and working memories, and attention span. (Vriend et al., 2013).

Altogether, this study achieved a sleep difference of merely one hour or so in participants. Even this modest amount of sleep manipulation over the course of two weeks turned out to display a distinct difference between those that went from short-long and those that went from long-short in their sleep cyles. Many deteriorating effects in aspects of memory, attention and response were observed among parents of children during their short sleep duration week; however, not so in every aspect. In general however, shorter sleep durations clearly impaired critical areas of neurobehavioral functioning in children studied in this study. (Vriend et al., 2013). Although poor sleep cannot be considered the sole cause of behavioral issues, it is important to note that the potential for behavioral issues and diminished functioning increases tremendously with inadequate sleep in children.

Due to the copious amounts of evidence pertaining to the disastrous effects of improper sleep in young children, it is highly recommended that Dr. Somnus intervenes as soon as possible to rectify poor sleep habits in his patients. Intervention should be inclusive of parents as well, as they play a key role in the management and modeling of healthy behaviors in younger children. First and foremost, it is recommended that Somnus Pediatrics publically promotes sleep as a health-related behavior and stresses the importance of both quality and quantity of sleep among children. Tackling these poor sleep patterns and encouraging healthy sleep hygiene at an earlier age can create the foundation for children to better manage their sleep as they develop.

According to a study conducted by Bonuck, Blank, True-Felt, and Chervin, The most modifiable, prevalent, and consequential sleep problems in early childhood are insufficient sleep, behavioral sleep problems, and sleep-disordered breathing. Therefore, Dr. Somnus is recommended to focus his intervention on these specific categories. He should collaborate with parents to consider ways in encouraging children to sleep earlier, and maintain a regular bedtime schedule. In addition, he should rule out possible sleep and behavioral disorders among his patients so that he can alter and personalize his intervention techniques as needed.

Sleep problems can be prevented through implementation of proper sleep hygiene to regulate the internal circadian rhythm of developing children. This in turn conditions behavioral expression and regulation, as well as reduces excessive stimulation. (Bonuck et al., 2016). For younger children in particular, this includes interventions such as: instigating a regular bedtime routine, sleeping without the presence of parents in the room, and eliminating access to electronics and screen time fifteen to thirty minutes prior to settling down for the night. (Bonuck et al., 2016). Overall, anything that helps parents regulate the quantity and quality of sleep that their children receive is a good start to improving the development of neurobehavioral functioning and emotional regulation in children of all ages, but particularly younger ones.

Sleep Deprivation Among College Students Essay

In today’s modern society, the average college student is sleep deprived more than ever. Sleep deprivation is the situation or condition of suffering from a lack of sleep. Sleep deprivation is real, and only researchers are the only ones who know it is a big problem throughout colleges and universities worldwide. Sleep deprivation has many factors leading to it, but also has just as many effects. Within the articles Awareness of effects of sleep deprivation among college students. by Abigail Nirandhi Ranasinghe, R. Gayathri, and V. Vishnu Priya; Sleep Quality and Academic Performance in University Students: A Wake-Up Call for College Psychologists. by Steven P. Gilbert and Cameron C. Weaver; Association of Stress, General Health, and Alcohol Use with Poor Sleep Quality among U.S. College Students. by Teresa D. Valerio, Myoung Jin Kim, and Kathy Sexton-Radek; and Impact of a sleep course on sleep, mood and anxiety symptoms in college students: A pilot study. by Argelinda Baroni, Jean-Marie Bruzzese, Christina A. Di Bartolo, Adam Ciarleglio and Jess P. Shatkin; all explain the many different reasons why college students aren’t getting enough sleep. The articles mentioned in the paper all discuss results, the results are the problems that are causing college students to have poor sleep quality. Some impacts on sleep deprivation can be mental and emotional health, sleep quality, and sleep problems. Students need to know how important sleep is and why they need more sleep than what they perceive they need.

Disturbed or insufficient sleep is common among college students, with 70% of the students attaining insufficient sleep, 50% reporting daytime sleepiness, and more than 30% reporting severe sleep difficulties (Baroni, A., Bruzzese, J., Di Bartolo, C. A., Ciarleglio, A., & Shatkin, J. P., 41-50). Numerous studies throughout the world have been conducted on sleep deprivation and how college students can be affected. The research was conducted by using surveys and recording activities that were done before going to sleep, as well as after. All the researchers included in the numerous studies focused on many different variables, but only the ones that affected students the most. The results from the three different studies had some similarities but also differences, but nothing major. This paper is going to examine the purpose of the studies and to better understand what common factors can lead to sleep deprivation.

Sleep deprivation can affect both your mental and emotional health, which can lead to more severe consequences. In Teresa D. Valerio’s, Myoung Jin Kim’s, and Kathy Sexton-Radek’s study focused on college students throughout the world and associated them with behaviors and functions that impacted their sleep quality. Behaviors that were taken into consideration were alcohol, cigarette, and drug use, as well as, how your general health was functioning. The amount of sleep can affect your sleep quality which can be foundational to emotional health. When the amount of sleep needed was not reached, students became stressed because they felt as if they were behind due to not understanding the material in their classes. Students academics fell dramatically along with their quality of sleep, because of the late-night assignments that needed to be done (Valerio et al.).

Researchers want colleges to put on interventions to show students what late nights and less sleep does for them. Not only is their academic standing decreasing, but their overall long-term quality of life is dramatically decreasing as well. When your long-term quality of life is at risk, your mental and emotional states of health are at risk. In this study, researchers looked at how stressed students were beforehand and during the study. Stress levels increased, while sleep quality was decreasing causing their health to get out of balance. The results to this study affected Caucasian females, who were about twenty years of age, enrolled full-time, single, and not a member of a sorority the most (Valerio et al.).

Sleep quality is a concern in colleges throughout the world, in this case, half way across the world. Y. Y. Tsui, and Y. K. Wing, conducted a similar study, and their purpose was to investigate sleep problems and patterns of university students who were majoring in business at a Hong Kong University. Having a study done on sleep quality in China, shows that this is a major topic among the many universities throughout the world. Even though this is an older study, results showed that female students who are about the age of twenty are sleep deprived. Just like in the 2016 study, the results are similar and shows that universities and colleges are not letting their students know how important it is to get a good night’s sleep (Tsui et al.).

From the Tsui et al. study, further conclusions showed, that attending early morning lectures and living on-campus were the biggest factors of students being sleep deprived. The researchers that conducted this study on the University, wants schools to show their students the importance of sleep and time management so they do not become stressed. In this study, Decreased sleep quality has been linked to a variety of mental and physical problems, including the feelings of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. As a result, there is a growing concern about university students’ sleep habits and problems especially in relation to their health and well-being (Y. Y. Tsui, and Y. K. Wing, p. 167).

The final study by Argelinda Baroni, Jean-Marie Bruzzese, Christina A. Di Bartolo, Adam Ciarleglio and Jess P. Shatkin, was conducted to determine a student’s sleep course, and what was impacting the students sleep behaviors, mood, and anxiety. Students were studied by many different tests that needed to be taken throughout the course of the study. Results showed students who dropped out of the study and who did not. Among these two categories, the results were either significantly above the average or were right on the baseline of being average (Baroni et al.).

Overall conclusions were based on what impacted the students sleep quality. Mental and emotional health statuses were big impacts due to increased levels of depression and anxiety. The researchers strongly suggested putting on interventions that sleep education and targeted cognitive behavioral skills can eliminate the sleep problems and possibly the more severe effects. Lastly, there was more positive than negative data within the study. Students did show improvement in sleep parameters, mood, and anxiety when the study was concluded (Baroni et al.).

Finally, throughout the studies, there were noticeable similarities that needed to be brought to attention. Within the first two studies discussed, there commonalities were that females who were about the age of twenty were more sleep deprived than others. Another similarity between the first two studies, was the time of day, whether it was staying up late doing work or getting up early for class, both had major impacts on the students sleep quality. The first and third studies that were discussed, really wanted college to put on interventions so that their students can be educated on why sleep is really important. The last study that was discussed, tied in to the two others by having the same three main themes. These three themes were, impacts on mental and emotional health, sleep quality, and sleep problems.

Sleep Changes Due to Mindfulness Meditation Essay

Sleep Changes Due to Mindfulness Meditation

Earlier this year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that insufficient sleep is a public health problem (Lichtenstein, 2015). According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (as cited in Lichtenstein, 2015), people with sleep deficiency have a greater risk of many health complications, including heart disease, kidney disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke, and obesity. Sleep disturbance is a chronic health concern due to the consequences on the life of an individual. Does mindfulness meditation have a form of impact on one’s sleep quality? Mindfulness meditation can be characterized as a form of a mental training, which helps improve focus. It involves your own thoughts and emotions in a present moment. People practice mindfulness meditation for their own personal benefits due to its inclusivity of one’s mental state of mind as well as the physical aspect. It can be done in different methods and can be a universal practice.

What is Mindfulness Meditation?

Mindfulness is characterized by a nonjudgmental awareness of and attention to moment-by-moment cognition, emotion, and sensation without fixation on thoughts of past and future (Kabat-Zinn, 1990). Mindfulness meditation includes the breathing and practicing techniques that will allow a mind clearing, as well as becoming aware of one’s body and mind. It is not just a mental training but also helps with muscle and body relaxation which has its own benefits. A recent research study conducted by Massachusetts General Hospital (as cited in American Medical Technologists, 2016) finding that mindfulness meditation, over the short period of eight weeks, increased the amount of gray matter in regions of the brain involved in learning and memory, regulation of one’s emotions, and self-awareness. It is important to recognize that mindfulness meditation does not affiliate with any form of belief or religion. It is a universal practice that anyone can uphold and learn it just has more to do with personal preference. There is no need to have to be trained in or practice meditation when one wants to be mindful. Becoming mindful has its own benefits of promoting emotional health and enhancing self-awareness.

Mindfulness Meditation and Pain

Mindfulness meditation has been identified to reduce pain have benefits in clinical settings, as well as experimental. Research has shown that sleeping poorly can lead to a problem dealing with chronic pain, which then has its impact on daily tasks. Within a spectrum of chronic pain conditions, mindfulness meditation has reportedly reduced pain for people just with a matter of moderate changes. An example can be how Buddhist monks have found that mindfulness meditation has had a significant benefit for their experience with pain. Mindfulness meditation–based interventions improve pain symptomology across a wide spectrum of pain?related disorders, including fibromyalgia, migraine, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, and other conditions (Zeidan & Vago, 2016). There was a study that reported 287 chronic patients, and 89% of them would deal with disrupted sleep. The 8?week mindfulness?based stress reduction program has discovered varies of approaches that dealt with the treatment of chronic pain. In a seminal study, it was disclosed that in the condition of chronic patients, there were progress in quality of life and in pain symptomology. Which was due to completing the mindfulness-based stress reduction program, these improvements were continued even after a 3-year follow up. What is taken away is that mindfulness meditation has helped people who have dealt with chronic pain, which had allowed them to have a fuller night’s rest.
Sleep consist of more than just a rest to your body and mind. It is a key component in how we live our lives, since sleep plays a significant role in how we feel not only physically and mentally. According to the National Sleep Foundation, (as cited from Lichenstein,2015) which updated its sleep recommendations earlier this year, young adults and adults should receive 7 to 9 hours of sleep but not less than 6 hours or more than 10 hours or 11 hours. There have been studies that demonstrate that relaxing your body and mind can ameliorate sleep, with including meditation regularly.

Mindfulness Meditation and Insomnia

Mindfulness meditation appears to be a viable treatment option for adults with chronic insomnia and could provide an alternative to traditional treatments for insomnia (Ong et al., 2014). 54 adults who suffer from chronic insomnia. An eight-week self-monitoring study, randomized participants in either a mindfulness-based stress reduction or mindfulness-based therapy for insomnia. The way the reports came about were by self-reported sleep diaries. The patients would record their total wake time as well as their pre-sleep arousal scale. This would then correlate with how chronic a patient’s insomnia was. After a 3-month follow-up there was a significant improvement measured. The models of the results would then show how receiving interventions that were meditation-based had greater benefits to patients dealing with sleep disturbances. In a more elaborate manner, there was a decrease in total wake time, the participants were able to sleep for a longer time without waking up with the help of mindfulness meditation. The sleep measures showed that monitoring sleep time, as well as, wake time allowed the participants to be aware of how mindfulness meditation improved their sleep quality.

Insomnia is a widespread and debilitating condition that affects sleep quality and daily productivity (Gong, Ni, Lui, Zhang, Su, Lian, Peng, & Jiang, 2016). These analyses have revealed to us that there has been an overall effect of improved wake time and sleep quality due to mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness meditation has provided a form of aid for one’s sleep quality. The form of relaxation not only ameliorates one’s mind but also enhances the physical perspective of it. These results suggest to us that mindfulness meditation can improve sleep parameters in patients that deal with insomnia. Mindfulness meditation can serve as an auxiliary treatment to medication for sleep complaints (Gong et al., 2016).

Mindfulness Meditation and improvements

When people incorporate new tasks into their routine it can become embedded in them where these habits will become second nature. Creating new habits will require self?control to be maintained for a significant period before the desired behaviours acquire the necessary automaticity to be performed without self?control (Lally, Van Jaarsveld, Potts, & Wardle, 2009). A mind and body harmony can be attained due to meditation practices that help to condition brain functions in various ways. Mindfulness meditation has been beneficial in many cases and there has been evidence that it improves one’s sleep quality. Theoretically, as individuals engender deeper states of mindfulness during meditation, they develop a greater tendency to exhibit mindful attitudes and behaviors outside of meditation, in the context of daily life (Kiken,2014).

Problem Statement and Research Question

Mindfulness meditation has shown many benefits to people’s sleep quality. There although may be many questions that need to be answered. Most of these studies included mediators with experience. So, we fail to know whether it has to be practiced for a while then will be able to see a difference in sleep, or if you see immediate results. It is important to be able to incorporate log sleep, even if it is a complicated task to do. Tracking how much sleep you are getting is an important responsibility, so you are able to see changes over time. Practicing mindfulness meditation is a learning process or more so preferability which may influence one’s sleep quality.  

Three Effective Ways that Slaves Escaped Slavery Essay

Three Effective Ways that Slaves Escaped Slavery

Slavery have been a great part of history. The first slaves to arrive in North America came in 1619 to Virginia. The slaves were known to be African, and they were used for long term labor mostly in the southern regions of the United States. They were miss treated and sold as possessions giving them no value because of their race. Through those times, slaves found many ways to resist slavery. The consequence of this resistance didnt end well for many, and the result was the executions of these slaves that did resist. Some of the ways that slaves resisted slavery include acts of rebellion, running away, and many other ways.

History reveals some of the most prominent slave revolts of the 1800s (Partcities Bristol). The Nat Tuners Rebellion in 1831 is one example. This revolt, out of many, was very successful although many white land owners were able to derail other rebellions before they could happen. This rebellion achieved the fear of many southerners, and portrayed the idea that slavery was in fact benevolent. Slave owners were also affected, in fact, they were portrayed as ruthless and violent as well as some being kind and well-intentioned. This uprising in Virginia clearly revealed that slaves wanted their freedom.

The Nat Turners Rebellion 1831 arose from a man named Nat Turner (Doc South). He believed, as an adult, he was to attack the institution of slavery. The rebellion began in February 1831 when Turner saw a sign which was an eclipsed sun he gathered followers and planned. The rebellion lead to the murder of many southern whites. This was the ultimate result of the resistance of slaves in the 1800s. This rebellion, by the time it was finished, had 60 men as followers of Turner. The total effectiveness of this resistance was producing fear in white slave owners, so that they would understand that the slaves also wanted freedom and more benefits for their hard labor.

Runaway slaves had one ultimate goal, and this was to find freedom even if it meant to stay hidden. Continuing the line of the 1800s, in 1848 a man by the name of Henry Brown wanted freedom any way he could get it. As an example in history, he escaped in 1849 in a crate that carried him for 27 long hours to New England although not all slaves were this successful. Slaves would not only run away for freedom but also in fear of punishment for disobeying the masters rules. This story doesnt just end here.

The most interesting fact is that most slaves didnt run away for permanent slavery but for a way to with hold labor to be able to bargain and negotiate economic struggles. They bargained the amount of free time they were able to enjoy, monetary rewards, access to garden plots, and other rights. Slaves later got the rights they longed for though the emancipation proclamation of Lincoln. Although Lincoln believed that blacks and whites were equal, he didnt think that they deserved the same political and social rights as whites. The emancipation didnt free all the slaves, but in fact it freed slaves in certain states.

Therefore, slaves did achieve success in this as well even though it was in the long run.
Slaves continued to show their great strength and determination to achieve freedom, but its interesting to see that women also were involved. It is amazing to read about pregnant women would kill their own new born, so that a new slave would not be born into the world. This was a way of depriving slave owners of having another slave for labor. Another way that women slaves showed their resistance was by having extraordinary knowledge about medicine, and they used this skill against slave owners in such a way that it made the slave owners fearful that their food might be poisoned. This knowledge gave these women a sense of power.

The effectiveness of slave resistance ended many lives with harsh and brutal punishment; these forms of resistance eventually granted them the freedom they deserved. Even though the true freedom they hoped for didnt really occur until Martin Luther King Jr gave his very famous speech. Even today racism is still seen, but not only for African Americas but for other ethnicities as well. This topic sure has sparked many controversial issues between the races.  

Slavery was a Major Issue Essay

Slavery was a major issue of concern in America. It involved capturing the less powerful in the colonies and taking them forcefully as workers. Slavery was characterized by torture, manipulation, and oppression of the victims. Women were left without their husbands; some of them were involved in forced marriages. Slaves were taken to work for instance in plantations and in construction projects (Keene, Cornell & ODonnell, 2013). The rights of the slaves were not taken into consideration. Movements rose to help fight for the rights and freedom of the slaves. Proponents and opponents describe slavery using the analytical tools which included mobility, democracy, capitalism, and difference.
The views of the opponents and Proponents.

Democracy was an analytical tool that was used in the sense that the Americans were tired of the oppression that they were going through in the hands of the British tyrant. The Americans thus sought out a plan on attaining freedom from captivity that they had been drowning in. The Americans insisted on democracy that involved equal treatment of every citizen as it was stated by law. In addition, Slavery was viewed as beneficial to the countries that had captured the colonies for example, in the case of England (Yates, 2011).Slaves in England had helped in the significant increase in the production levels and thus slavery was beneficial for the growth of the country. Eliminating slavery proved difficult for England. The slaves in England were denied their rights and freedom because of the fact that their presence in the country had a lot of benefits.

In addition, the need for democracy led to the rise of activists and movements groups that educated the slaves particularly women about their rights as partners in their marriages. Women became bolder for they had knowledge of their significant role in a marriage. To add on, democracy was inhibited by the fact that lawyers and printers were oppressed by the stamp duty act that they had to bear. The stamp duty was to be imposed on every item. All the stringent laws that were being enacted that deprived the slaves of their rights were aimed at increasing the dominance and power of the colonialists.

Moreover, the colonialists did not give the colonies a chance in the legislative bodies; they did not participate in the making of the law. The law was practically imposed on them. For example, the Americans protested because of the fact that they were being taxed yet they had no representation in the government.

In the concept of difference

The powerful states that were capturing the slaves had the sole aim of increasing their revenues and thus the tyrants increased the customs duties so that it could cover the deficit that had initially been experienced. The forceful increase in the customs taxes was necessitated by the enacting of the laws that were stringent about the payment of taxes. Those who did not comply with the new regulations on tax were prosecuted. To add on, goods were not to be smuggled and so those who were involved in the act were heavily penalized (Keene, Cornell &ODonnell, 2013). For instance, the case of Grenville who enacted the sugar act which involved taxing imported sugar. The stringent laws that were being imposed on the colonies were a violation of the democratic provision for individuals. The other difference that was experienced was the fact that the Americans had better standards of living because of the fact that they were not heavily taxed. The tax was differential; some states paid a different rate as compared to the other states.

The colonialists were forceful in their maneuvers of acquiring power over the states. The oppression that the colonies were experiencing made them be more aggressive when it came to their rights. For instance, in the case of the stamp duty act, the lawyers carried on demonstrations depicting the new act as oppressive or overburdening to the legal bodies.

Women also were not left behind in the fight for their rights. The British had forced the importations of fabric to their state and that they were obliged to make their garments from them. The women carried on boycotts demanding that they had a right to make their clothes from the locally manufactured garments (Keene, Cornell &ODonnell, 2013). The nonimportation act made the women active in the politics of their nation. In addition, the proclaiming act passed by the colonialists who were denied access to some places of the west. The proclaiming act led to the land dispute. The aspect of a difference did not influence the role of women in the society. Women were associated with certain roles in the society. For instance, they were obliged to take care of their families.


Slavery majorly came with shortcomings and also advantages. To the colonialists, they were able to acquire labor at a cheaper cost and also reported high revenues majorly from the heavy taxes that the slaves were made to pay. Numerous negative outcomes were experienced as a result of slavery. The negatives include the two major analytical tools that are the democracy and the difference. The difference majorly focused on the reactions of the slaves to the colonialism. While the democracy tool featured how the slaves were treated and how it was unjust for them. Through various reforms and uprising of able leaders, some countries were able to attain their independence to enjoy their rights later on.


  • Keene, J. D., Cornell, S. & ODonnell, E.I. (2013).Visions of America. United States: Peach put
  • Yates, R. (2011).Revolutionary road. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 

Slavery Refers to a Condition Essay

Slavery refers to a condition in which individuals are owned by others, who control where they live and at what they work. Near two million slaves were conveyed to the American South from African and the West Non mainstream players amid the Atlantic slave exchange. The American South represented over 20% African Americans. One of the prime roles in the enslavement of blacks was the economy. The colonies in the South wanted to produce the most goods for export as possible; therefore requiring the cheapest labor. The Europeans in what was known as The Triangular Trans-Atlantic Slave Exchange transported the African locals from Africa.

This was a sorted out course where Europeans would venture out to Africa bringing produced merchandise, catch Africans and take them to the Caribbean, and after that take the yields and products and take them back to Europe. The African individuals, so as to impart designed a dialect that was a blend of all the African dialects consolidated. This languages currently changes from island to island. They additionally kept their way of life, which represents calypso music and the instruments utilized in these melodies. In the 1600’s when John Rolfe established tobacco, tobacco turned into the principle wellspring of salary for a large portion of the pioneers. The monetary success of the states was essentially reliant on the measure of tobacco created.

The developing of tobacco required a lot of land, with a vast stable work drive. The expanded interest for a huge, stable work compel joined with the accessibility of African slaves, prompted the utilization of subjugation in the provinces. The slaves would just require being instructed a bit, rather than teaching the obligated hirelings over after such a significant number of years have past by. Family life among subjection was to a great degree impacted and formed by persecution. Families were shaped around, and torn separated by the malevolence of their masters and the outcomes of their activities. Kids were sold far from their moms and fathers never to see them again and set to work at an early age. The bosses ensured that their slaves couldn’t peruse and compose for the simple truth that on the off chance that they ever were to learn, there would be a fairly vast uprising of obstruction. A few slaves did learn and got away effectively. Others be that as it may, were not as effective or as capable as others and were in no methods fundamental ready to control their very own destiny. Slavery additionally was intensely affected by religion. Slaves sang tunes, murmured spirituals, constantly and discharge themselves from the grasping hands of bondage.

They went to chapel on in some cases a normal premise however it was not exactly as it ought to have been. Whites continually administered the majority and ensured that the Blacks were trained that bondage was great by White evangelists. The slaves made up tunes that were encoded with a message that just they knew so they could convey securely without having the ace discover. They sang these tunes in cheerful occasions and additionally during hopelessness or distress. To conclude slavery was a heartless, avoidable foundation which caused a great deal of unnecessary passings, distress and disorder to African Americans and abolitionists alike over a time of a few hundred years. Abolitionists were a slave’s solitary expectation in this timeframe. The danger of being gotten was high, and the discipline was much more extreme.

It took a lot of bravery for the conductors to help slaves, as well as to really be the slave who was fleeing. They never surrendered their confidence, and battled some of the time until death for what they had faith in. With the death of the Liberation Decree, subjugation didn’t promptly arrive at an end. In any case, this gave a kick off to all captives to continue holding tight for only somewhat longer until the point that genuine change could happen.  

Slavery in the USA Essay

With the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus in 1492, the new opportunities were endless, and everyone wanted their share of the riches. Spain, England, Portugal all wanted pieces of the New World and were willing to pay the ultimate price in search of gold and glory. Across Europe, Africa, and most of the Old World, slavery has been used in almost every society dating back to before the ancient Greek and Roman empires. The need for labor is ultimately what fuels the desire to own slaves to build what would eventually become the Americas that we know today. Just as in their homelands, the people who came to the Americas brought over their version of slavery. For years, Portugal and Spain were enslaving Africans and transporting them all over the world. This is the beginning of the slave trade that will ignite the expansion of agriculture economies in the Southern half of colonial America. In England, and also in the colonies, there was no English law on slavery.

There were indentured servants that would serve for a specified amount of time and then would eventually gain their freedom but none were actual slaves as we know the word today. Even though to the south in Spanish colonies, the slave trade was exploding, the British Colonies did not adopt race based slavery right away. Instead it was a gradual transition from servitude to slavery that also encompassed a transition from slavery based off of individual circumstance to slavery based off of race. This occurred due to a multitude of reasons but two crucial factors were ease of acquiring African slaves and the need for massive amounts of labor.

The discovery of the New World was not only about land, there was also the discovery of all new goods that were otherwise not known to anyone in Europe or Africa. Goods such as tobacco from Virginia or Sugar from the Caribbean were in high demand across Europe and thus resulted in the vast expansion of production in the Americas. Tobacco farms expanded immensely across Virginia due to the states excellent growing conditions. With many people flocking to the Chesapeake region to stake their claim in order to get rich, there was a major need for labor. In the beginning, the English farmers knew that in order to get rich off of tobacco, it would need to be produced in massive quantities. First, the English tried to enslave the Chesapeake tribes that were native to the region. This proved very difficult due to their numbers and knowledge of the region.

At the time in Virginia, land was readily available to anyone who wanted some. This in turn created a huge problem for plantation owners because People who could make a living for themselves from the land had little reason to work for someone else (Clark, 68) which created a major labor shortage. In order to solve this problem, many land owners turned to indentured servants. In the early days of tobacco farming, most laborers were indentured servants (Clark, 64) rather than African slaves. Meanwhile, back in England, their own economic hardships made recruiting indentured servants very easy for land owners in Virginia. Men would sign contracts for periods of four to seven years with the promise of receiving their freedom and fifty acres of land after the completion of their term.

For low skill agriculture workers, this was a great opportunity to get transportation to the colonies with the prospect of receiving a large amount of land in the future. When this did not meet the needs for labor, English authorities turned to the undesirable population of England itself. Orphans were shipped to the colonies to serve as indentured servants until the age of twenty-one when they would be freed. This did not become successful due to a large number of them dying after only a couple years of hard work in the fields. Another option that was tried was using convicts from England. This was not very popular amongst land owners because these people have already broken the law foreshadowing difficulty keeping them disciplined on the plantations. After exhausting these other forms of labor, the English colonies began to rely more and more on race based slavery just like the Spanish and Portuguese colonies to the south.

After exhausting other means of labor and still failing to meet the requirements of plantation owners, people living in the English colonies in the southern half of the colonies turned to race based slavery of Africans. Although this clearly did not happen overnight, there was always an underlying tone of racism in the colonies towards Africans. Whether it was in judicial proceedings or in everyday life, the Africans always seemed to be on the receiving end of a harsher punishment. Starting in the middle of the seventeenth century, laws were written to codify the enslavement of Africans.

In 1662, Act XXI states that negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother (Henning 42) which began the tradition of passing on the chains of slavery from parents to children. Following this, Africans were no longer protected by the law that stated that an Englishman could not enslave a fellow Christian. And if that did not make it easy enough to enslave Africans, it was enacted that all servants imported and brought to this country, by sea or land, who were not Christians in their native country shall be accounted and be slaves (Henning 42). It was laws like these that laid the foundation for the Chesapeake region and the rest of the south to transform into slave society. Another factor that contributed to this massive change was the expansion of the colonies and the improvement of the English economy. Less and less indentured servants were coming over from England and the ones that did were headed to new colonies such as Pennsylvania in search of better opportunities.

The creation of laws against Africans plus the underlying notion that whites were superior to blacks was just the beginning. When people moved south to form the colonies of North and South Carolina and then Georgia, they brought the tobacco agriculture with them. At first, these colonies relied on both indentured servants and on slaves. Georgia even had a law prohibited slavery. After a shortage of servants, the land owners turned to African Slaves and Georgia removed the law prohibiting slaves. This paved the way for the slave society of the south.

The final nail in the coffin for potential African slaves was the English takeover of the slave trade. This monopolization of the slave trade made it easier and cheaper for English land owners in the colonies to buy and sell slaves. This drastically increased the number of slaves in the colonies as the plantation owners turned to an all slave workforce to cultivate their wealth. In addition to the English monopoly on the slave trade, African rulers also sold their own people into slavery. Seizing the opportunity to gain wealth and to be able to trade for goods otherwise unknown to Africans, leaders of tribes and kingdoms betrayed their own citizens to achieve personal power and wealth. This made is easier for Europeans to enter Africa and take people hostage to transport across the Atlantic.

Throughout the history of the world, slavery has always been present and is not just an American invention. With the discovery of the new world, there was numerous opportunities for many men to get rich. The southern half of the American colonies were very well suited to grow cash crops whose demands soared in England and across Europe. Land owners needed one thing, cheap labor. After experimenting with servants and other types of labor, the colonies ultimately resorted to race slavery and it worked very well. This labor force was able to be harshly disciplined and worked hard all day without the need to care for them creating a relatively low-cost business.   

Slavery in the United States Essay

In the United States there were one million three hundred thousand black slaves in the middle of the second decade of the nineteenth century, out of a total of eight and a half million inhabitants. Only about two hundred thousand blacks were free.
The slaves did not enjoy any civil right in the nation that had been a pioneer in their recognition and guarantee. They could be transferred or sold as a thing.

They could not exercise any legal action: contracts, marriage or ownership. The personal situation varied depending on the character and treatment of their owners. Many slaves tried to go to the North. Only in Canada could they feel safe.
The slave trade had been abolished at the beginning of the 19th century, but the South needed a constant flow of slave labor. The constant increase in demand caused the value of the slaves. It is estimated that by 1860 a slave could be worth about $ 2,000.

The economy of the South was based on the system of cotton and tobacco plantations, supported by slave labor. All the wealth of this part of the United States was generated thanks to slavery. The economy and society were dominated by an oligarchy of landowning families, immensely rich and did not question the use of slaves to maintain and increase their wealth and power. Associated with this, a certain mentality was generated, which was based in the first place on a British aristocratic social origin in front of the whites of the North.
The southern aristocracy also elaborated an entire ideological construction to justify the existence of slavery. Their approaches mixed arguments with others of religious type.

The blacks, always according to this theory, would be inferior to the whites in intelligence For their part, the poor whites of the South also defended the existence of slavery because it In the North, blacks were not slaves, but they suffered from discriminatory and segregationist legislation: restriction of political rights and different public spaces. Even so, those States were anti-slavery and there the fight against slavery began. The American Colonization Society failed in its attempt to repatriate blacks to Africa. The American Anti-Slavery Association founded in 1833, and the main objective was the abolition of slavery. Antislavery began to permeate the northern society, in conjunction with other causes, such as the emancipation of women, both efforts to create a new and more egalitarian model of society.

Between 1835 and 1860, the social and economic models of the North and the South collided. The North, linked to the Republicans, opposed the southern slave system and its plantation economic system, considering it antiquated. The South, on the other hand, defended its interests. The economic issue is very important to understand the disagreements between the North and the South. The southern economic model of plantation needed free trade policies to be able to sell cotton easily with the growth of European textile industrial demand. For its part, the North needed to defend and protect its industrial products from British competition. But, in addition, there are other more complex economic issues in the relations between the North and the South.

Slavery had clear ethical, social and economic dimensions. In 1820 the compromise was reached, through the well-known Masson-Dixon line, to delimit the slave states of those that were not. In 1854 it was approved that it would be the citizens who would make the decision on the character of each State. That caused a strong conflict in Kansas.

The Republicans, decidedly antislavery, managed to take the presidency in 1860 to Abraham Lincoln, against the Democratic candidate, Breckinridge, defender of the slave cause. A month after the proclamation of the new president, South Carolina proclaimed that the Union had been dissolved and opened the slope for which other southern states filmed. Lincoln was not willing for the Union to break. The war did not take long to explode.

In 1863, Lincoln passed the Proclamation of Emancipation, by which all slaves of the Confederate States were freed. Slavery would end the war, but the situation of the black population would not improve substantially.